Tras haber creado mi anterior blog cecilmundo varias personas, muchos de ellos mis alumnos, me sugirieron que creara una secciòn dentro de cecilmundo para publicar mis obras de docencia de idiomas. Dado que la cantidad de documentos de explicaciones, ejercicios y exàmenes de inglès son muy numerosos porque tengo màs de 30 años del ejercicio de la docencia, preferì estrenar blog con mis alumnos a como ellos realmente merecen. En este blog planetcecil no solo iràn mis documentos didàcticos de inglès, sino tambièn la producciòn literaria de varios alumnos que se destacan en las letras. Tambièn darè oportunidad a aquellos que tienen excelentes obras pero que no han logrado publicarlas ya que en mi paìs Nicaragua todo se mueve por la marrana polìtica, y si una no pertenece a determinado partido no verà jamàs publicado su opus. Tambièn tenemos la desgracia de contar con seudoeditores quienes al no conocer verdaderamente de literatura se convierten en mercenarios de la imprenta solo para llenarse ellos mismo de dinero y fama a costillas de los escritores. Todos aquellos que deseen participar en este blog, denlo de antemano por suyo. Aunque lleve mi nombre en un arranque de egolatrìa, yo soy sencillamente vuestra servidora.Cecilia

Las alas de la educación

Las alas de la educación
La educación es un viaje sin final.

La lección de física

La lección de física
Casi aprendida

domingo, 24 de febrero de 2008

are we really here?

pour mon père

originally written in Spanish, translated by the same author

Cecilia Ruiz de Ríos

The first thing my daddy taught me was to avoid trying to hide the sun behind one thumb because of the impossibility of this. That is why today I shall speak to you about War, although I must make it clear that nobody likes to speak about it. Among military terms you can find abbreviations and euphemisms, and in all languages in which aggression is practised. One term in English that has always bewildered me is M.I.A. Missing in action. Disappeared during combat, or while in action.
How much use or abuse was given to this during World wars, or during the French intervention to Chad from where my uncle returned home with no more appetite for red meat, or during the Vietnam conflict from which many blondie gringos never came home, and who knows if it was destiny `s retaliation charging its unpaid bills and on that occasion it deemed necessary that all those lads who went to fight in order to wolf down the southeast should be trapped in tunnels, o water clinks o who knows how…

But War, as I speak to you about it, as I saw it through my astonished eyes, anyways always turns you into a M.I.A. Something from you gets stuck in the slime, which is thickened by blood or that piece of human kidney that you unwittingly stepped on with your boot, over there in the battlefield, without realizing what it was, only that it made a strange and nauseating noise when you walked over it. No, sirs, don `t ever misguide yourselves by humming that tune about beloved, suppose that I go far, so far that I shall forget my own name, beloved, mayhaps I am indeed another man, taller and not as old….

The Sweet Abyss is a masterwork of the new Cuban troubadours, but War is not so. So beware, the one who stays behind enemy lines is the lady while the male of the species goes to face combat. We always handle War terms in masculine, forgetting the Celtic women who were the best warriors, even outdoing men, or beautiful Boadicea swallowing poison before Paulinus Suetonius could lay a hand on her. Or gorgeous Nzingha of Ndongo and Matamba fighting against the Portuguese so that they wouldn`t convert kingdom into an endless source of slaves for the colonies, or Candace the empress of Ethiopia astride an elephant commanding her troops and scaring away blond Macedonian Alexander the Great, who preferred not to battle than to end up being the laughingstock of everyone because a female would have beaten him.
WE must be clear that War is feminine, it is a man`s game according to sexist males like the paunchy general who, barely fitting into his uniform like a sausage in pork`s tripe, would rudely scold me saying that it was ugly for a women to speak about War, only to mask the fact that he was terribly embarrassed because he couldn`t know who William Wallace formed his troops , ready for battle.

But thus is how things work, and I have told you that we would have a yarn about War and I have been droving the skittish goats of my old spites. There are things in the everyday life of combat, whether you are just a war correspondent as were D`Annunzio or Hemingway, or as a soldier, that turn us into M.I.A. As veterans of all barbarous actions, we will never again be the same, and no tale ever wrought by Lovecraft, no bizarre tale write by Poe with two liters of moonshine dancing between back and belly, no dead is dead said by Stephen King, can be compared with the horror of War. The photogenic smile stays the same, but behind the light pupil, if we really focus on it, there are the debris of fear, beyond what is never a sweet abyss of memory there is our instinct for survival, tense, drawn tight like a cello string ready to burst. Our bloodiest mementoes are the permanent guests of a memory that still trembles, its mailing address is the last remote corner of our eyelids, next-door neighbours to the oniric World of our dreams. They visit us as soon as we drowse, sometimes in full color, with their own soundtrack and with credits for lights! Camera! Let`s get the action rolling! All this at the end of the latest session from midnight atwixt the sheets. We arrive punctually for the summons made by our traumas.

And in my dreams I am again in the north, by Jalapa, covered with blood with the rank, dank smell of copper, so drenched that even my bones seem to dissolve amidst the 170 pounds of my Rubensian Venus plumpy, and it is not the wetness of a storm that has abated, but blood, fortunately not mine, but it still pains me. And how can I explain that incident in La Penca, when I spent a whole night gabbing about the most diverse matters with a soldier, in the middle of the darkest night, but when the chopper finally came to evacuate us the man was dead with wide open wounds, and when we brought him to the morgue in Managua the forensic doctors determined that he had been dead for more than 12 hours, and since he couldn `t have opened his mouth to deny that... thus ended the story. Conversation with a dead man, and that is not the name of a good Hitchcock flick.

Often, even after so many years after Teotecacinte, Jalapa, La Penca or Operation Danto, revulsion smacks me in the face with its Tyranosaurius Rex visage, between the preparation of the mushroom sauce and the seasoning of the filet mignon with which I will agreeably surprise my family for lunch, and the violent and gaping red meat resembles the wide open, always bleeding wound of War. Even after so many years of not wearing a comfy pair of Jungle boots, War is like an old pal from kindergarten, it returns with its round-trip ticket and unexpiring visa towards daily the terror that lives in my nightmares. I want to say that I have gone back to normal life, and I really do enjoy it when my daughter sees the ad for a new war flick and we go to enjoy it together, saying that the bloodier, the better. I don `t want to affirm that I cry ,hiding so no one sees me, when I wake up, shaking and drenched in cold sweat, with wide gaping eyes, because it is not really that what bothers me anymore. On November 11th, Veteran `s Day because on that precise date in 1918 ended the First World War , I wear a red paper flower on my breast and I want to convey a cheap sentimentality that I am far from feeling but that is very much in fashion nowadays

If my father were alive, he would dig out his medals and he would put baby powder over his tattoo with the number that was engraved in pain over his elbow in Auschwitz, and he would wink his eye at me. But he would, also, caught at that precise moment without warning, be forced to admit that he as well as myself as well as all war veterans,
up to a certain point continue to be soldiers who are missing in action, no matter if our bodies did come back and that now, we truly enjoy our nests and our families. Maybe we might never know what we left behind on the battlefield, something that Frederick of Prussia didn `t mark on his military maps, nevertheless something that visits us, from one night to another, in our nightmares or during our day-to-day life with our reflexes and fear of having someone approaching you from behind without making noise. We too, even though we may now enjoy the right to live in peace as so Uncle Ho yearned for, are still M.I.A.

5 Oct. 2000

Brindando con una taza de cafè

El cafè ha sido una bebida adictiva desde que fue descubierta por un pastor de ovejas de la vieja Abisinia(hoy Etiopìa).He aqui algunos poemas y pensamientos en torno a lo que el francès Honorato de Balzac llamò "màs imprescindible que el agua misma." Aquì tenemos una recopilaciòn en español e inglès para aquellas personas para quien el dìa no ha comenzado si no beben una taza del "elìxir moreno de los dioses màs comprensivos"(lo dijo Marx y no yo.)
Poemas, pensamientos e historia sobre el cafè
Todos menos el poema de Darìo traducidos al castellano por Cecilia Ruiz de Rìos.


Honorato de Balzac

”El cafè deberìa ser negro como el infierno,
Fuerte y definitivo como la muerte
Y como el amor dulce y tierno.
Es por eso que una taza de cafè
Puede ser el puente hacia màs de 40 años de amistad sincera.No es de asombrarse que esta bebida de los dioses fuera
tan estimulante,
Como una conversación bien lograda, interesante y excitante
quitàndonos el sueño pero sin impedirnos,despiertos,soñar,
y asì bajo su efecto, hasta poder por los cielos navegar.”

“Una taza de cafè-café real.tostado al estilo casero, molido, que viene hacia tì como un ojo pardo visto negro por la oscuridad, pero que cambia a un bronceado àureo cuando lo combinas con una crema que nunca supo de engaños, que fue crema genuina desde su nacimiento,espesa, tiernamente amarillenta, perfectamente dulcem sin grumos ni espumoso…Ay, que esa taza de cafè es la medida para 20 diablos azules y lograrà exorcisarles a todos ellos.”
Henry Ward Beecher , teòlogo estadounidense del siglo XIX


Un genio de las Mil y Una noches escapa raudo, como el primer bouquet del vino,
De la humeante taza que està al lado de mi pergamino
Es la bebida del gozo,
Sangre oscura mora
dulce, ora amarga
Deleitando con su carga
que brota del ancestral pozo
Abierto hace milenios por el abisinio Kaldi el pastor.
Es la bebida que aborrece Morfeo y para algunos, el elìxir del amor.
Bendita seas Etiopía
y luego Arabia y despuès Turquìa
por haber extricado de la savia de la moca
el cafè que agiliza cuanto toca
y sin dejarnos la razòn loca.
No vivirìa sin tì jamàs,
Esencia para el alma,
Y dèjame seguir libando de tì màs y màs
Cafè, extracto de la tierra, que sin tì no tengo calma.

Ruben Darìo

Solimàn El Magnìfico, sultàn de la dinastía osmanlì

“De mirada oscura, de lejos eres negro, jinn del amor.
Pero al aproximarte con tu cadencia lìquida y suave
Me quitas la somnolencia, ,y espantas el sopor,
Y me echas la imaginación a volar.
La calidez de tu caricia siento bajar
Por mi cuello, cuerpo adentro, bajo la piel
Para buscar la raìz de mi paz,con dulzura de miel.
Mientras màs te tengo, màs te deseo, con una voracidad
Que desafìa descripción,pues al no tenerte te busco con ansiedad.
para encontrar ese sosiego a mi modo
que solo tù me puedes dar con sabor a cielo,a sol oscuro, pero sobre todo
y a verdad.”

A BASIC HISTORY OF COFFEE by historian Cecilia Ruiz de Rìos:
Prior to 1000 A.D.: Members of the Galla tribe in Ethiopia notice that they get an energy boost when they eat a certain berry, ground up and mixed with animal fat. 1000 A.D.: Arab traders bring coffee back to their homeland and cultivate the plant for the first time on plantations. They also began to boil the beans, creating a drink they call "qahwa" (literally, that which prevents sleep). 1453: Coffee is introduced to Constantinople by Ottoman Turks. The world's first coffee shop, Kiva Han, open there in 1475. Turkish law makes it legal for a woman to divorce her husband if he fail to provide her with her daily quota of coffee. 1511: Khair Beg, the corrupt governor of Mecca, tries to ban coffee for feat that its influence might foster opposition to his rule. The sultan sends word that coffee is sacred and has the governor executed. 1600: Coffee, introduced to the West by Italian traders, grabs attention in high places. In Italy, Pope Clement VIII is urged by his advisers to consider that favorite drink of the Ottoman Empire part of the infidel threat. However, he decides to "baptize" it instead, making it an acceptable Christian beverage by brewing it with holy water to cheat Satan out of any prank he may play.. 1607: Captain John Smith helps to found the colony of Virginia at Jamestown. It's believed that he introduced coffee to North America, and first Indian to have tasted it was his lover the Princess Pocahontas.. 1645: First coffeehouse opens in Italy. 1652: First coffeehouse opens in England. Coffee houses multiply and become such popular forums for learned and not so learned - discussion that they are dubbed "penny universities" (a penny being the price of a cup of coffee). 1668: Coffee replaces beer as New York's City's favorite breakfast drink. 1668: Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse opens in England and is frequented by merchants and maritime insurance agents. Eventually it becomes Lloyd's of London, the best-known insurance company in the world. 1672: First coffeehouse opens in Paris.1675: The Turkish Army surrounds Vienna. Franz Georg Kolschitzky, a Viennese who had lived in Turkey, slips through the enemy lines to lead relief forces to the city. The fleeing Turks leave behind sacks of "dry black fodder" that Kolschitzky recognizes as coffee. He claims it as his reward and opens central Europe's first coffee house. He also establishes the habit of refining the brew by filtering out the grounds, sweetening it, and adding a dash of milk. 1690: With a coffee plant smuggled out of the Arab port of Mocha, the Dutch become the first to transport and cultivate coffee commercially, in Ceylon and in their East Indian colony - Java, source of the brew's nickname.1713: The Dutch unwittingly provide Louis XIV of France with a coffee bush whose descendants will produce entire Western coffee industry when in 1723 French naval officer Gabriel Mathieu do Clieu steals a seedling and transports it to Martinique. Within 50 years and official survey records 19 million coffee trees on Martinique. Eventually, 90 percent of the world's coffee spreads from this plant.1721: First coffee house opens in Berlin.1727: The Brazilian coffee industry gets its start when Lieutenant colonel Francisco de Melo Palheta is sent by government to arbitrate a border dispute between the French and the Dutch colonies in Guiana. Not only does he settle the dispute, but also strikes up a secret liaison with the wife of French Guiana's governor. Although France guarded its New World coffee plantations to prevent cultivation from spreading, the lady said good-bye to Palheta with a bouquet in which she hid cuttings and fertile seeds of coffee.1732: Johann Sebastian Bach composes his Kaffee-Kantate. Partly an ode to coffee and partly a stab at the movement in Germany to prevent women from drinking coffee (it was thought to make them sterile), the cantata includes the aria, "Ah! How sweet coffee taste! Lovelier than a thousand kisses, sweeter far than muscatel wine! I must have my coffee."1773: The Boston Tea Party makes drinking coffee a patriotic duty in America.1775: Prussia's Frederick the Great tries to block inports of green coffee, as Prussia's wealth is drained. Public outcry changes his mind.1886: Former wholesale grocer Joel Cheek names his popular coffee blend "Maxwell House," after the hotel in Nashville, TN where it's served.Early 1900's: In Germany, afternoon coffee becomes a standard occasion. The derogatory term "KaffeeKlatsch" is coined to describe women's gossip at these affairs. Since broadened to mean relaxed conversation in general.1900: Hills Bros. begins packing roast coffee in vacuum tins, spelling the end of the ubiquitous local roasting shops and coffee mills.1901: The first soluble "instant" coffee is invented by Japanese-American chemist Satori Kato of Chicago.1903: German coffee importer Ludwig Roselius turn a batch of ruined coffee beans over to researchers, who perfect the process of removing caffeine from the beans without destroying the flavor. He markets it under the brand name "Sanka." Sanka is introduced to the United States in 1923.1906: George Constant Washington, an English chemist living in Guatemala, notices a powdery condensation forming on the spout of his silver coffee carafe. After experimentation, he creates the first mass-produced instant coffee (his brand is called Red E Coffee).1907: In less than a century Brazil accounted for 97% of the world's harvest.1920: Prohibition goes into effect in United States. Coffee sales boom.1938: Having been asked by Brazil to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses, Nestle company invents freeze-dried coffee. Nestle develops Nescafe and introduces it in Switzerland.1940: The US imports 70 percent of the world coffee crop.1942: During W.W.II, American soldiers are issued instant Maxwell House coffee in their ration kits. Back home, widespread hoarding leads to coffee rationing.1946: In Italy, Achilles Gaggia perfects his espresso machine. Cappuccino is named for the resemblance of its color to the robes of the monks of the Capuchin order.1969: One week before Woodstock the Manson Family murders coffee heiress Abigail Folger as she visits with friend Sharon Tate in the home of filmmaker Roman Polanski.1971: Starbucks opens its first store in Seattle's Pike Place public market, creating a frenzy over fresh-roasted whole bean coffee.

jueves, 7 de febrero de 2008

An attempt at literary exorcism

for Chele Marcos
"The bullet which shall wound me shall be a bullet with a soul...”Salomón de la Selva
I do not know why, but since I was born in the United States, I just knew I was destined to live one of the weirdest romances of all times. Nothing in my appearance or configuration distinguished me from so many thousands, so many like me, I was not anything special, but from that very moment I recall that I told myself I was going to be special, memorable,unforgettable. It was not a Mae West syndrome whispering for you to come up and see me sometime. I would have to go and look for that unfanthomable destiny, incredible, unique, unrepeatable and inevitable. I was just one more golden gringa,that was it, but something told me that I was destined to be a one of a kind protagonist.I spent a lot of time just holding on, bored, I felt tied, like stuck in a case of nothingness,gravitating as I waited for the event, for that magical moment in which I would be catapulted into an unique and decisive event, expected and feared, both at the same time.I understood what the ovules gravitating into maturity in a ovary feel, or what a fetus does while he waits for the waters to flow outward and he can dawn into the world. But the date for my encounter was already pointed out by what the Arabs call kismet, destiny. If you please, call it fate.
In 1984 I met the great love of my life. She was wearing loose camouflaged pants, a video camera slung from her shoulder and she exhibited jungle hair in several shades of mahogany. We met in Jalapa, Nicaragua, so far away from my birthplace in the United States. She was being followed and since she was rather chubby, she had a hard time climbing up the ladder that went into the military helicopter that would return her, other militaries and 4 European war correspondents back to Managua. An amalgam of noise which was made of triggers, whistling bullets and the hissing blades of the helicopter disoriented me a wee bit, but when I was able to find myself, the encounter had already happened.
The woman settled herself inside the helicopter next to a blond Frenchman who was stinkier than all the onions of the world put together. This blondie looked at her in alarm and told her to look al the blody pants.Instictively,the maiden looked at her crotch, the logical site if you are a woman in a fertile age.The Frenchman had the decency to blush to say no, it was somewhere lower. That was when the woman looked at the left leg of her pants, all torn, and a sea of blood oozing from behind her knee.”But I felt nothing, merdouze,I felt nothing and they hit me!” she would recite as if she were quoting Walt Whitman or Guillaume D`Aquitaine if that is who pleases you most.
It was as if her dignity was upset because she had been shot and she had been so stupid as no be unaware of the fact. Beside her, a blond Nicaraguan with the rank of captain took out a big bandanna and a tourniquet was firmly tied in order to avoid further loss of blood. The blond Nicaraguan held her head in his arms and crooned,”That`s it, fatty, stop it, Bat! We will take you to the military hospital but take it easy, okay?” It was pretty obvious that this man had a very difficult time trying to handle soothing words, but it was evident that he was terrible worried. He continued speaking to her in English all along the chopper`s flight, and I was understanding what he was mumbling. Some of the things he said were not to my liking. Who was he to touch the love of my life, and she to allow him to do so?I did not know that she and the blondie, whom many called Eric the Red, were chums since they were both babies, and a gust of jealousy swept over me.
Once in Managua, the woman was taken in a noisy ambulance to the hospital, Eric the Red went right along with her. Far from the foreign correspondents, the man finally burst into tears.”I shall never forgive myself if your leg gets amputated, Bat. Shit, you have such nice legs, you bitch, your father will kill me for this! ”The woman twisted and turned on the stretcher and she had a strange fey smile on her face, but she would utter nothing more than a hissing shut up! Up to this point, a huge anguish was getting into me.
What would happen to me? Getting the woman into the doctors hands, Eric the Red stayed outside promising the woman that he would call her parents. The physicians inmediately stripped her of her boots and pants. They cleaned her up and I heard them say it would be a difficult case. It was not until around 7 in the evening, after countless exams, x-rays, hurries and lots of fidgeting that I could be at peace. The doctors`opinion was that due to the way that things happened,and since the bullet was sitting exactly at the point where femur, tibia,fibula and patella converge, it would truly be an impossible task to extricate the projectile from there. There was a man with transparent green eyes who chain-smoked next to her bed.
There was no question of amputation, and nothing about extricating the bullet. The woman would learn to live with her bullet as of that moment. As weeks and years went by, the orifice of the entry would leave no mark on the perfectly formed leg. She would have a bit of pain during the new moon days, with air conditioners and the cool airs of December, and she would set off the alarms when she visited banks or went through the airport check -up, when the metal would be detected.
“At least it did not hit you near the arse, like your uncle who was on D-Day,” said her father when he took her home from the hospital two days later. There had been Eric the Red, whom obviously had not been thrown in jail or anything like it.”Bat,can you forgive me? It was I who took you on mission,”said the blond, with a tearful look in his gray eyes. ”Fuck off,Eric,stop giving me bullshit,”said she while I writhed around in jealousy.
From then on I learned to know her.And I started loving her with such a vicious possessiveness that I never believed I could be capable of feeling. She was again out as a war correspondent at La Penca and she almost went lunatic when she yarned with a chap named Rubèn, who had a profound gash on the chest. Bat would affirm that she spent the whole night yarning with him, but it was quite scary when she returned to Managua with the recruit`s corpse and the forensic doctor told her that he had been dead for a good amount of hours. She wept for hours in her father`s lap and Eric the Red snarled at her that if she took the military service recruitsnwho died in combat so seriously, she was going to spend the rest of her life with her stormy eyes as swollen as frogs. Once in a while her mother would have her visit several doctors to see what could be done about her bullet. Once she was given pills which made her vomit even what she hadn`t eaten in centuries, to say the least. I felt guilty because I couldn`t mitigate her pain. I never wished to hurt her, but I adored her so much that I couldn`t bear the thought of being wrenched away from her.
After her parents` death in a plane crash, there was no more mention of going to the doctor. The only one who could have convinced her to visit the hospital was Eric the Red, but the poor chap was so enmeshed in his own troubles because he had to deal with his own psychosis. I get the impression that Bat sometimes got a little fed up of playing wageless psychotherapist, and even though they were together at the same military unit after she decided to become a full-fledged military, Bat never overspent her patience. She deal with Eric the Red with an endless sweetness, just like a mother had to deal with a hyperkinetic baby.Eric the Red would seat her on his long sofa in his bureau, he would hand her a guitar and would ask her to play the instrument.I remembered Farinelli singing to soothe away King Philip V of Spain`s melancholy. “You are my Orpheus and I am the beasts for you to tame...”said Eric the Red.
Years later, when Bat left the army without signing a single document, Eric the Red continued to be hooked on her emotionally. One afternoon, she was translating confidential documents for a multinational when he called her, sunken in despair. Taking into consideration that she had many bills to pay such as energy, water service and phone, with the threat of getting those services cut off, Bat said that she could not abandon the translation because at the same moment that she finished, she would get paid in cash. Eric the Red lost his marbles and he insulted her, yelling at her that if he committed suicide it would be as if she herself put the bullet in his head because she never had time for him. Bat surely had heard similar nonsense after so many years of friendship, so she didn`t do more than hang up. The following day, Eric the Red was dead after having swallowed a bullet in the best Hemingway style. Bat, this time, was unable to cry. She had too many other things to do, and pain was not included n her agenda. She just undertook the burden, a burden which was made of guilt, heavier than anything that Atlas had to carry, including the whole world.
Pain should have been included in her agenda because when many years later she was diagnosed as a diabetic, she would have it. The neuropathies, those shameful bolts of flashing pain that people with diabetes suffer, would be worse in her left leg because of the bullet. Again, it was brought up that maybe by extracting the buller that she had since 1984 maybe some remedy might be possible. Bat this time wanted to know about the possibility, so she went to the hospital to have an ultrasound performed on her. Lying down on a couch, she turned her duststorm eyes towards the screen.It was the first time that she saw something like that. She remembered her pregnancy, when she was expecting her rowdy twins, and a wave of maternal feelings swept over her. There she was, tiny,well- nooked, shining. Like a fetus. Bat, recalling that on one occasion she was almost aborted, got up from the couch and cuddled her knee. She felt pain, but she smiled. “Under no circumstance am I removing this thing from my body. It would be as if I aborted my kids.I am not a criminal. She stays there. I love her. No more talk about this.”
I could finally breathe, relaxed. I was loved! Here, inside Bat, despite her high glucose level and her pains, I have the honor of being cocooned in an eternal, loving pregnancy. When she dies, I shall be buried in her same tomb, a privilege that not even her own husband will have because he will be laid to rest beside her, in a separate crypt. Well, one thing. Keep me a secret! I will never tell her that the 22- caliber bullet which dashed her friend`s life, Eric the Red, when she refused to listen to him, that bullet was my own sister.

Cecilia Ruiz de Rìos

Central America`s Foremost Musicologist


Cecilia Ruiz de Ríos

From a dilettante to others, was the slogan of the Small Music Lessons in the undying voice of Salvador Cardenal Arguello, our foremost musicologist born on October 29th. In this phrase is summarized the humbleness, modesty and tenderness that always characterized the unforgettable founder of Gueguense Radio, the only classical music station of Nicaragua. For those of us who had the enormous honour of knowing him, it is not necessary to listen to his lessons to recall him.Salvador Cardenal, fondly nicknamed Don Salva, was an extraordinary man, a magnificent husband,loving father and a severe yet gentle teacher.
I met Don Salva when I studied music at the conservatory, being a teenager. One afternoon he came to seek among all those kids that studied there the two privileged souls who would be his tutored students. The lucky chosen ones were the blond Leonese Silvio Alejandro Cortéz and myself. Silvio, with his sweet disposition and smiling docility World be a delight as a pupil for don Salva, while I World be the one destined to give him several strong headaches.I was backtalking, spoiled and quarrelsome. However, the iron-gripped discipline to which don Salva held us was enough for me to Stara worrying about learning instead of playing pranks on poor Silvio. Don Salva was the perfect example of the iron fist wrapped in a silken glove.
Respectful, dilligent and punctual, he never forwarded us into new topics unless he was 100 per cent sure that Silvio and I had understood and assimilated everything. His paternal protection towards us included practical adivice, and it was to my great joy that when I won a gold medal for shot put in a track meet to celebrate Columbus Day, in the midst of the cheering crowd was Don Salva, feeling very proud of me. It was don Salva who taught me that learning didn`t have to be painful, and that history was a far cry from being being. Alter class, I World stay a while longer tasting sweetmeats or ice cream, talking about the most diverse topics.
When I went to France with a scholarship, I got it through his help. Once in France, there wasn`t a single week during which I wouldn`t write to him, long sprawling letters full of lurid details and acrid remarks, which were answered by an avalanche of advice that proved very useful…such as “what do you want a 90 for if you can have a 100.”
The Small Music Lessons griten by my teacher had traveled with me to Europe.In a version translated by myself into French, they were filed by the French Conservatory. As soon as I returned with my certificates, I went to show my teacher what I had done. It was the least that I could do, for I owed him my scholarship and a good percentage of my professional training. As disciplined and tidy as always, don Salva showed me all the letters I had sent him, neatly tied with satin ribbons.”My wife Ofelia really enjoys your letters, so full of witty remarks.”Don Salva shared everything with his green-eyed wife, with whom he lived in a perpetual and sincere romance.
Shortly alter I returned from France, he was awarded one of his many distinctions, the Bèla Bartòk Award for musical research. Along time, he would win the Medal for Prominent Personality in Latin American Music, two medals from the Voice of America(VOA) for his broadcasting efforts, the Rubèn Darìo Order of Cultural Independence, The Héitor Villalobos Award for Musicology and the Medal For Excellence from the Marais Foundation of France. This last distinction was awarded posthumously, since he died on September 1st,1988 at the age of 74. His wife had died only one year before.
Among his works, we must highlight Small Music Lessons, Nicaragua Music and Song(an anthology of folkloric music), Music History according to Salvador Cardenal and Music and Thought(music and philosophical spurts).In the 50s he created Radio Centauro, which later on became Radio Gueguense. He was by occupation an accountant, yet he became a self-made musicologist due to his passion for music. He also painted and made drawings. His work was continued by his son Lorenzo Cardenal Vargas, a sound engineer. Lorenzo died of heart failure in 2001.Nowadays Radio Gueguense has fallen into a slump due to the poor administration and lack of knowledge of his vedette granddaughter Belen Cardenal.

Only surviving pupil: Cecilia Levallois, since Silvio Alejandro Cortez Wordsworth- Leonese composer,translator and writer-died of leukaemia in 1989 in New York.

The Lion and the Mouse by Aesop

Once when a Lion was asleep a little Mouse began running up and down upon him; this soon wakened the Lion, who placed his huge paw upon him, and opened his big jaws to swallow him. "Pardon, O King," cried the little Mouse: "forgive me this time, I shall never forget it: who knows but what I may be able to do you a turn some of these days?" The Lion was so tickled at the idea of the Mouse being able to help him, that he lifted up his paw and let him go.
Some time after the Lion was caught in a trap, and the hunters who desired to carry him alive to the King, tied him to a tree while they went in search of a waggon to carry him on. Just then the little Mouse happened to pass by, and seeing the sad plight in which the Lion was, went up to him and soon gnawed away the ropes that bound the King of the Beasts. "Was I not right?" said the little Mouse.
1. Why did the Lion let the Mouse go? He thought the Mouse might be able to help him as well another time.The Mouse said something that amused the Lion.
2. What did the hunters not want to do with the Lion? kill himtake him to their king.put him into a waggon
3. Which part of his body did the Mouse use to free the Lion? handsteethtail
4. What is the moral of the fable? One bad turn deserves another.Little friends may prove great friends.There is always someone worse off than yourself.

my mom learned with this

Juana´s Bilingual List of Common Phrasal verbs by CRR

(to) eat away: roer, carcomer, corroer, desgastar. (to) eat into: corroer, comerse. (to) eat out: comer fuera, cenar fuera. (to) eat up: comerse, consumir, tragar, devorar. (to) egg on: animar, incitar. (to) end in: acabar en, terminar con. (to) end off: acabar, terminar, ir a parar. (to) face up to: afrontar, enfrentar, enfrentarse a. (to) fall about: troncharse, partirse (de risa). (to) fall apart: romperse, deshacerse, caerse a pedazos. (to) fall away: disminuir/desaparecer/desprenderse. (to) fall back: retroceder, retirarse. (to) fall back on to: recurrir a, echar mano de, apoyarse en. (to) fall behind: retrasarse, quedarse atrás, rezagarse. (to) fall behind with: retrasarse. (to) fall down: caer, caerse/ hundirse, derrumbarse, venirse abajo/fallar/ dejarse engañar por, picar. (to) fall in love: enamorarse de. (to) fall in: desplomarse, venirse abajo/ alinearse, formar filas, ponerse en filas. (to) fall in with: encontrarse con, juntarse con/convenir en, aprobar, aceptar (to) fall into: dividirse en, clasificarse en/ adquirir. (to) fall off: bajar, disminuir/ empeorar/ desprenderse, caerse. (to) fall on: incidir en, recaer en, tocar a/atacar, caer sobre. (to) fall out: reñir/ pelearse /romper filas/ caerse. (to) fall over: caer, tropezar con/ caerse (to) fall through: fracasar, quedar en nada. (to) fall to: empezar a, ponerse a/ corresponder a, incumbir a, tocar a. (to) fall under: clasificarse en, estar incluido,-a en. (to) feel for: compadecer a, compadecerse de. (to) feel up to: sentirse con ánimos para, sentirse con fuerzas para. (to) figure on: contar con, esperar. (to) figure out: comprender, explicarse/ resolver, calcular. (to) fill in: rellenar/poner al corriente. (to) fill in for: sustituir a. (to) fill out: engordar/rellenar. (to) fill up: llenar/ llenarse. (to) find out: preguntar, averiguar/ enterarse de/ calar, pillar, descubrir el juego/ informarse/ enterarse (to) get about: moverse, desplazarse, salir/ viajar/ difundirse. (to) get across: cruzar/ atravesar/ hacer comprender, hacer entender/ hacerse entender. (to) get ahead: adelantar, progresar. (to) get along: arreglárselas, apañárselas/ marcharse, irse. (to) get along with: llevarse (bien) con/ marchar, ir con. (to) get around: moverse, desplazarse/ viajar/ difundirse/ evitar, sortear. (to) get around to: encontrar tiempo para. (to) get at: alcanzar, llegar a/ insinuar/ criticar/ meterse con. (to) get away: escaparse, irse/ alejar, quitar, sacar. (to) get away with: salir impune de. (to) get back: volver, regresar/ moverse hacia atrás, retroceder/ recuperar. (to) get behind: atrasarse. (to) get by: arreglárselas/ pasar. (to) get down: deprimir, desanimar/bajar/ apuntar, anotar/tragar/bajarse. (to) get down to: ponerse a. (to) get in: llegar/entrar/subir/ser elegido,-a/ meter/recoger, cosechar/ recoger/comprar/llamar. (to) get into: llegar a, entrar en/ subir a. (to) get off: quitarse/ bajarse de/ bajarse/ salir/ comenzar/ escaparse. (to) get off with: ligar. (to) get on: subir a, subirse a, montar a/progresar, avanzar, ir/tener éxito/ llevarse bien, avenirse, entenderse/ seguir, continuar/ hacerse mayor, envejecerse. (to) get on for: ser casi. (to) get on to: ponerse en contacto con, localizar/ empezar a hablar de, pasar a. (to) get out: sacar/quitar/salir/bajar de, bajarse de/escapar(se)/llegar a saberse, hacerse público,-a. (to) get out of: librarse de/ dejar, perder la costumbre. (to) get over: recuperarse de/ sobreponerse a/ salvar/ vencer/ comunicar, hacer comprender. (to) get over with: acabar con. (to) get round: salvar/ evitar, soslayar/ convencer, persuader/ difundirse, hacerse público,-a, llegar a saber. (to) get round to: encontrar tiempo para. (to) get through: llegar/ conseguir hablar ((to, con))/ hacerse comprender ((to, a))/ acabar, terminar/ consumir/gastar/ beber/aprobar. (to) get together: reunirse, juntarse/juntar, reunir/ montar/ recoger, reunir. (to) get up: levantarse/ subir/ levantarse/despertar/ disfrazarse. (to) get up to: hacer/ llegar a (to) give away: distribuir, repartir/regular/entregar/delatar, traicionar/revelar, descubrir. (to) give back: devolver. (to) give in: darse por vencido,-a, rendirse/ceder/entregar. (to) give in to: ceder ante. (to) give off: despedir, desprender, emitir. (to) give onto: dar a. (to) give out: distribuir, repartir/ anunciar/ acabarse, agotarse/ averiarse, sufrir una avería. (to) give over: entregar/ dedicar, asignar/ dejar de. (to) give up: dejar/ abandonar, renunciar a /ceder, renunciar/entregarse/ darse por vencido,-a, rendirse. (to) give up on: abandonar, desistir. (to) go about: emprender, hacer/ continuar. (to) go after: perseguir, andar tras. (to) go against: ir en contra de/ser desfavorable a. (to) go ahead: proceder. (to) go ahead with: proceder. (to) go along: pasar por/ progresar, ir/ ir. (to) go along with: estar de acuerdo con. (to) go around: bastar, ser suficiente, haber/ correr, circular/ ir, andar/ salir ((with, con))/ andar ((with, con))/ girar, dar vueltas/ recorrer. (to) go away: marcharse. (to) go back: volver, regresar/datar de/ remontarse a. (to) go back on: romper, no cumplir. (to) go by: pasar/ atenerse a, seguir/ dejarse llevar por/ juzgar por. (to) go down: bajar/ deshincharse/ ponerse/ hundirse/ ser acogido,-a. (to) go down with: coger, pillar. (to) go for: atacar/ ir a buscar/ gustar/ valer para. (to) go in: entrar. (to) go in for: participar en, tomar parte en/ presentarse a/ dedicarse a/ ser partidario,-a de. (to) go into: entrar en/ investigar/ chocar contra. (to) go off: marcharse/ estallar/ sonar/ dispararse/ estropearse, pasarse/ cortarse/ apagarse/ perder el gusto por, perder el interés por. (to) go off with: escaparse con. (to) go on: seguir, continuar/ pasar, ocurrir/ quejarse/ hablar sin parar/ encenderse/ estar a punto de cumplir. (to) go out: salir/ apagarse. (to) go over: revisar, repasar. (to) go over to: pasarse a/ cambiar a, pasar a. (to) go round: dar vueltas, girar/ pasar por casa de, visitar. (to) go through: pasar por, sufrir, padecer/ examiner/ registrar/ gastar/ explicar/ ser aprobado,-a. (to) go through with: llevar a cabo. (to) go towards: destinar a, reservar para. (to) go under: hundirse/ fracasar. (to) go up: subir/ acercarse/ levantarse/ estallar/ to go up in flames, incendiarse. (to) go with: acompañar/ ir con, estar incluido,-a/ hacer juego con. (to) go without: pasar sin, prescindir de. (to) grow apart: distanciarse. (to) grow away from: distanciarse de. (to) grow into: convertirse en, hacerse. (to) grow on: llegar a gustar. (to) grow out of: perder, quitarse/ quedarle pequeño,-a a. (to) grow up: hacerse mayor/ criarse, crecer/ surgir, nacer, desarrollarse. (to) hand around: repartir, ofrecer, pasar. (to) hand back: devolver. (to) hand down: transmitir/ pasar/ dejar en herencia. (to) hand in: entregar/ presentar, notificar. (to) hand on: transmitir, heredar: (give) pasar, dar. (to) hand out: repartir, distribuir/ dar/ aplicar. (to) hand over: entregar/ ceder. (to) hang about / hang around: esperar/ perder el tiempo/ frecuentar. (to) hang back: quedarse atrás/ vacilar. (to) hang down: colgar, caer. (to) hang on: agarrarse/ esperar. (to) hang out: tender/ soler estar. (to) hang up: colgar/ colgar. (to) have on: llevar puesto,-a/ tomar el pelo a. (to) have out: sacarse/ operarse de. (to) hold back: retener/ ocultar/ contener/ reprimir/ guarder/ vacilar, no atreverse/ abstenerse. (to) hold down: dominar/ desempeñar. (to) hold forth: hablar largo y tendido ((on/about, sobre)). (to) hold off: mantener alejado,-a/ refrenarse. (to) hold on: agarrarse fuerte, agarrarse bien/ esperar/ no colgar. (to) hold on to: cogerse a, agarrarse a/ guardar. (to) hold out: tender, ofrecer/ durar/ resistir. (to) hold over: aplazar. (to) hold up: atracar, as altar/ retrasar/ levanter/ aguantar, sostener/ aguantar, resistir. (to) hold with: estar de acuerdo con. (to) iron out: planchar/ resolver, solucionar. (to) jack in: dejar, colgar. (to) jack off: meneársela/ masturbar. (to) jack up: levantar con gato/ subir. (to) jump at: aceptar sin pensarlo. (to) keep at: perseverar en algo/ no dejar en paz, machacar. (to) keep away: mantener a distancia ((from, de)), no dejar a uno acercarse ((from, a))/ mantenerse a distancia, evitar contacto con. (to) keep back: retener, guardar/ ocultar, no revelar/ contener/ tener a raya/ estorbar, impedir/ mantener atrás, contener/ mantenerse atrás, alejarse. (to) keep down: oprimir, sujetar/ mantener bajo/ limitar, controlar/ mantener en el estómago/ agacharse, no levantar la cabeza. (to) keep from: abstenerse de, guardarse de. (to) keep in: no dejar salir/ hacer quedar/ contener/ costear, pagar. (to) keep in with: mantener buenas relaciones con. (to) keep off: mantenerse a distancia/ no llover/ no dejar entrar, no dejar acercarse/ no tocar, no hablar de. (to) keep on: seguir, continuar/ no quitarse. (to) keep on about: insistir en, no parar de hablar de. (to) keep out: no dejar entrar, no dejar pasar/ no entrar. (to) keep out of: no entrar en/ no meterse en. (to) keep to: atenerse a, cumplir/ no dejar, no salir de. (to) keep together: mantenerse juntos,-as, no separarse. (to) keep under: tener subyugado. (to) keep up: mantener, seguir/ mantener despierto,-a, tener en vela/ aguantar el ritmo/ mantenerse al día. (to) keep up with: seguir/ mantenerse al corriente de/ mantener el contacto con. (to) kick against something: protestar contra, reaccionar contra. (to) kick around: andar por ahí/ dar vueltas a. (to) kick in: romper a patadas. (to) kick off: sacar, hacer el saque inicial/ empezar, comenzar/ empezar, comenzar, iniciar/ quitarse. (to) kick out: echar a uno. (to) knock about: rodar, recorrer/ andar con/ pegar, maltratar: (to) knock around: to knock about. (to) knock back: beberse de un trago, rápidamente o en grandes cantidades/ soplar, costar. (to) knock down: derribar/ atropellar/ derribar/ rebajar/ adjudicar ((to, a)). (to) knock off: tirar, hacer caer/ birlar, mangar, chorizar, afanar/ cargarse, liquidar/ descontar/ quitar/ acabar, salir del trabajo. (to) knock out: dejar sin conocimiento/ dejar dormido,-a/ poner fuera de combate, dejar K.O./ eliminar/ hacer rápidamente, producir rápidamente/ dejar pasmado,-a, dejar boquiabierto,-a: (to) knock over: volcar, tirar/ atropellar. (to) knock together: hacer de prisa, hacer rápidamente/ entrechocarse. (to) knock up: despertar, llamar/ hacer de prisa, preparar/ dejar embarazada/ pelotear. (to) lay about: agredir. (to) lay aside: dejar a un lado/ dejar de lado. (to) lay before: presentar. (to) lay by: guarder/ ahorrar. (to) lay down: dejar, soltar/ entregar/ imponer, fijar/ sentar/ guardar. (to) lay in: proveerse de. (to) lay into: atacar. (to) lay off: despedir/ dejar en paz, dejar de molestar/ parar. (to) lay on: facilitar, suministrar/ cargar. (to) lay out: tender, extender/ disponer, colocar/ presentar, exponer/ hacer el trazado de/ diseñar/ dejar fuera de combate/ desembolsar. (to) lay over: hacer una parada ((at/in, en)): (plane) hacer escala ((at/in, en)). (to) lay up: almacenar. (to) leave off: dejar de/ acabar, terminar. (to) leave out: omitir, excluir/ excluir. (to) let down: bajar/ alargar/ desinflar/ fallar, defraudar. (to) let in: dejar entrar. (to) let into: dejar entrar / incrustar en/ revelar. (to) let off: dejar/ hacer explotar/ hacer estallar/ perdonar/ dejar marcharse/ dejar en libertad. (to) let on: decir, descubrir/ hacer ver. (to) let out: dejar salir/ soltar ((from, de))/ soltar: he let out a shriek of pain, soltó un grito de dolor/ ensanchar/ divulgar, hacer público,-a/ alquilar. (to) let through: dejar pasar. (to) let up: parar. (to) let up on: dejar en paz. (to) look after: ocuparse de, atender a/ cuidar (de). (to) look ahead: mirar hacia adelante. (to) look at: mirar, considerer/ mirar. (to) look back: mirar atrás. (to) look down on: despreciar. (to) look for: buscar. (to) look forward to: esperar (con ansia). (to) look in on: pasar (un momento) por. (to) look into: investigar. (to) look on: considerer/observar. (to) look like: parecerse a. (to) look onto: dar a. (to) look out: ir con cuidado, buscarse. (to) look out for: esperar, estar al tanto. (to) look over: mirar por encima. (to) look round: volver la cabeza/ mirar/ mirar/ visitar. (to) look through: revisar/ ojear. (to) look to: contar con/ centrarse en. (to) look up: mejorar/ consultar, buscar/ ir a ver. (to) look up to: respetar. (to) make after: seguir a, perseguir a. (to) make for: dirigirse hacia/ abalanzarse sobre/ contribuir a, crear, conducir a. (to) make into: convertir en, transformar en. (to) make of: pensar, opinar, parecer/ entender/ dar importancia a. (to) make off: escaparse, largarse, huir. (to) make off with / make away with: llevarse, escaparse con. (to) make out: hacer/ extender, hacer/ redactor/ distinguir, divisar/ descifrar/ entender, comprender/ pretender, hacerse pasar por/ arreglárselas, apañárselas/ darse el lote, pegarse el lote. (to) make over: ceder, transferir, traspasar/convertir, transformar. (to) make up: inventar/hacer/ montar/ preparer/ componer/ confeccionar, hacer/ completer/ componer, formar, integrar/ representar/ maquillar/ compensar/ cubrir/ suplir/ recuperar/ maquillarse, pintarse/ hacer las paces, reconciliarse. (to) make up for: compensar. (to) make up to: halagar a/ congraciarse con/ recompensar, pagar. (to) make with: dar, traer. (to) mark down: rebajar el precio de/ bajar la nota de/ apuntar. (to) mark off: separar, dividir, distinguir/ delimiter/ tachar. (to) mark out: marcar, delimiter/ marcar, trazar/ señalar, seleccionar. (to) mark up: subir (el precio de), aumentar (el precio de)/ subir la nota de. (to) mix up: mezclar bien/ preparar/ confundir/ desordenar, revolver, mezclar. (to) nod off: dormirse, dar cabezadas. (to) pan out: salir, resultar. (to) pass away: pasar a mejor vida. (to) pass by: pasar/ pasar de largo. (to) pass down: pasar/ transmitir. (to) pass for: pasar por. (to) pass off: pasar, transcurrir/ parar/ pasarse/ hacer pasar ((as, por)). (to) pass on: pasar, dar/ contagiar/ pasar a mejor vida/ pasar ((to, a)). (to) pass out: desmayarse, perder el conocimiento/ graduarse/ repartir. (to) pass over: pasar por alto, dejar de lado, olvidar/ atravesar, cruzar. (to) pass through: estar de paso/ pasar por, atravesar. (to) pass up: dejar pasar, dejar escapar, desperdiciar/ rechazar. (to) pick at: tocar/ comer sin ganas. (to) pick off: matar uno a uno. (to) pick on: meterse con/ elegir, escoger. (to) pick out: elegir, escoger/ distinguir/ reconocer/ tocar de oído. (to) pick up: levantar/ recoger/ coger/ coger/ descolgar/ aprender/ adquirir, coger/ descubrir, enterarse de/ pescar, pillar/ conseguir, encontrar/ recoger, pasar a buscar/ coger/ recoger/ ligar con, ligarse/ detener/ captar, recibir/ reanudar/ reprender ((for, por))/ corregir/ darse cuenta de/ mejorar/ subir/ seguir, continuar. (to) pick up on: hacer reseña de/ volver a/ señalar. (to) pitch forward: caer de bruces, caer de cabeza. (to) pitch in: empezar/empezar a comer/ cooperar/ contribuir. (to) pitch into: emprender enérgicamente algo/ atacar, arremeter contra, poner como un trapo. (to) pitch off: quitar de encima, sacudir/ caer. (to) pitch out: tirar/ echar, expulsar, poner de patitas en la calle. (to) pitch over: tirar/ volcarse. (to) pitch (up) on: elegir, escoger/ encontrar, dar con. (to) pull about: manosear, estropear. (to) pull along: arrastrar/arrastrarse. (to) pull apart: romper, partir en dos/ desmontar/ criticar duramente/ separar, despegar, desunir. (to) pull away: arrancar/ quitar arrancando/ adelantarse/ seguir remando, tirar enérgicamente de los remos/ apartarse bruscamente de uno. (to) pull back: retirar/ retener, tirar hacia atrás/ tirar hacia sí, descorrer/ remontar un gol/retirar/ contenerse/ rajarse. (to) pull down: bajar, tirar hacia abajo, rebajar, hacer caer, tumbar/ derribar, demoler, derribar/ debilitar/ ganar. (to) pull in: tirar hacia sí/ recoger/ cobrar/ detener/ enfrenar/ ganar/ atraer/ parar/ llegar a la estación/ apretarse el cinturón. (to) pull off: arrancar, separar/ quitar de un tirón/quitarse de prisa/ llevar a cabo/ cerrar/ concluir con éxito algo/ ganar/ lograrlo/ llevarlo a cabo/ vencer./ salir. (to) pull on: ponerse (de prisa)/ tirar de. (to) pull out: sacar, extraer/ tirar hacia fuera/ tirar a uno de un hoyo a estirones/ sacar a uno de un río/ estirar, extender/ retirar/ irse, marcharse/ retirarse/ salirse/ salir (de la estación)/ sale fácilmente. (to) pull over: acercar tirando/ derribar, volcar/ hacerse a un lado, desviarse hacia un lado. (to) pull round: ayudar a uno a reponerse/ reponerse. (to) pull through: sacar a uno de un apuro o de una enfermedad/ salir de un apuro/ reponerse, recobrar la salud. (to) pull together: reorganizar un escrito, recuperar/ trabajar con un espíritu común, trabajar con espíritu de equipo/ sobreponerse, serenarse, recuperar la calma, animarse. (to) pull up: alzar, levantar, tirar hacia arriba/ alzar/ acercar/ arrancar, dessarraigar/ fortalecer/ parar, refrenar/ reprender/ pararse, detenerse/ pararse/ contenerse/ interrumpirse/ mejorar/ mejorar su posición. (to) put about, (to put around: diseminar, hacer correr/ dar a entender que..., hacer creer que..., hacer correr el rumor de que.../ hacer virar/ virar, cambiar de bordada,. (to) put across: comunicar/ hacer entender/ hacer aceptar/ presentar/ cerrar/ engañar a uno, embaucar a uno/ dar una paliza a uno/ impresionar con su personalidad/ presentarse de manera eficaz/ comunicar eficazmente lo que uno quiere decir. (to) put apart: separar a alguien de otras personas. (to) put aside: rechazar, desechar, dejar, poner a un lado/ dejar de lado, poner a parte/ guardar, poner aparte, ahorrar/ devolver a su lugar/ poner en el garaje/ envainar/ guardar/ desechar/ descartar, repudiar/ encarcelar, recluir en un manicomio/ alojar/ zamparse. (to) put back: devolver a su lugar/ restituir, volver a poner/ guardar/ volver/ restituir/ dejar/ retrasar/ aplazar/ beberse/ volver a puerto. (to) put by: ahorrar, tener dinero ahorrado= (to) put away. (to) put down: poner en tierra/ poner en el suelo/ depositar/ bajar/ soltar/ dejar/ dejar apearse/ déjalo/ suéltalo/ poner en tierra/ cerrar/ pagar como desembolso inicial/ poner en cava/ suprimir/ sofocar/ dominar/ hacer callar/ dejar sin réplica posible, humillar/ apuntar, poner por escrito/ degradar, pasar a una división inferior/ atribuir/ considerar/ sacrificar. (to) put forth: alargar/ tender/ extender/ echar/ emplear, desplegar. (to) put forward: nombrar, presentar, proponer/ hacer/ presentar, proponer, exponer/adelantar/ ofrecerse con poca modestia, ponerse en evidencia, llamar la atención sobre sí. (to) put in: meter, introducir/ insertar/ interponer/ presentar, aducir/ votar a, elegir/ dedicar, instalar, conectar/ plantar, sembrar/ entrar a puerto, hacer escala en un puerto/ presentarse a un puesto, solicitar un puesto. (to) put off: aplazar, postponer, dejar para después/ disuadir/ desconcertar/ desanimar/ dejar/ quitarse/ apagar/ hacerse a la mar/ salir. (to) put on: ponerse/ aplicar/ acelerar, cobrar velocidad/ asumir/ poner/ representar, poner en escena/ poner/ encender/ aplicar/ echar/ poner a calentar/ adelantar/ dar el nombre, sugerir un nombre, tomar el pelo a . (to) put out: sacar, poner fuera, mandar a pasearse, echar, expulsar, poner en la calle/ desahuciar/ tender la ropa, poner la ropa a secar/ echar al mar/ alargar, tender/ sacar, extender/ asomar, sacar/ echar/ ordenar, disponer, desplegar/ apagar, sofocar/ desconcertar/ enojar, irritar/ incomodar/ dislocarse/ publicar/ sacar a la luz/ hacer/ diseminar/ hacer correr/ , poner el dinero a interés/ hacerse a la mar/ salir de/ tomarse la molestia, molestarse. (to) put over= (to) put across. (to) put one over on sb.= ganar por la mano a uno, engañar a uno, dar a uno gato por liebre. (to) put through: cerrar/ despachar/ hacer aprobar/ poner una llamada/ someter a uno a una prueba. (to) put together: poner juntos, juntar, reunir/ sumar/ añadir/ montar, armar/ juntar, reunir, formar/ confeccionar/ jugar realmente bien. (to) put up: alzar, levantar, poner en alto, levantar, abrir, alzar/ montar, poner/ izar/ colgar/ pegar, fijar, poner/ envainar/ construir/ aumentar, subir/ ofrecer/ presentar/ hacer/ oponer/ nombrar, proponer/ poner una cosa en venta/ dar, poner/ preparar, hacer/ hospedar, alojar/ incitar/ levantar/ presentar/ ofrecerse. (to) put up with: aguantar, resignarse a, conformarse con. (to) put upon: molestar a uno, incomodar a uno, pedirle mucho a uno, abusar de la amabilidad de uno. (to) ride about, (to) ride around: pasearse a caballo, en coche, en bicicleta. (to) ride away: alejarse, irse, partir. (to) ride back: volver a caballo, en bicicleta, etc. (to) ride on: depender de. (to) ride out: aguantar hasta el final de. (to) rip off: arrancar/ timar. (to) rip up: romper, hacer pedazos. (to) round down: redondear (a la baja). (to) round off: completar, acabar. (to) round on: volverse contra. (to) round up: redondear (al alza)/ acorralar/ reunir, juntar. (to) run across: cruzar corriendo/ encontrar, tropezar con. (to) run after: perseguir. (to) run along: irse. (to) run away: irse corriendo, escaparse. (to) run away with: escaparse con/ no te vayas a creer que/ te dejas llevar por. (to) run down: atropellar/ criticar/ agotar/ bajar corriendo/ agotarse/ pararse. (to) run in: rodar/ detener/ entrar corriendo. (to) run into: entrar corriendo en/ chocar con/ tropezar con. (to) run off: imprimir/ irse corriendo. (to) run off with: escaparse con, llevarse. (to) run out: salir corriendo/ acabarse/ agotarse/ caducar. (to) run over: atropellar/ rebosar/ derramar. (to) run through: ensayar/ repasar/ echar un vistazo a. (to) run up: subir corriendo/ acumular/ izar/ subir corriendo. (to) set about: empezar a, ponerse a/ atacar, agredir. (to) set against: enemistar con, poner en contra de/ contraponer, sopesar, comparar con/ desgravar. (to) set apart: distinguir ((from, de)), hacer diferente ((from, de)). (to) set aside: guardar, ahorrar/ dejar/ reservar/ dejar de lado/ anular. (to) set back: apartar, retirar/ retrasar, atrasar/ costar. (to) set down: poner por escrito, escribir/ dejar/ establecer, fijar. (to) set forth: emprender marcha, partir. (to) set in: empezar, comenzar/ surgir/ declararse. (to) set off: salir, ponerse en camino/ hacer estallar, hacer explotar/ hacer sonar/ lanzar, tirar/ hacer empezar, provocar, desencadenar/ hacer resaltar, realzar. (to) set on: echar/ atacar, agredir. (to) set out: partir, salir ((for, para))/ proponerse ((to, -)), tener la intención de, querer/ disponer, exponer/ exponer. (to) set to: ponerse a, empezar a. (to) set up: levantar, erigir/ colocar/ montar/ montar, armar/ poner, server/ montar, poner/ fundar/ abrir/ crear/ proveer de/ ayudar a reponerse/ tender una trampa a/ establecerse ((as, como))/ pretender ser/ establecerse ((as, como)). (to) slip away: pasar, irse/ irse. (to) slip by: pasar, transcurrir. (to) slip into: ponerse. (to) slip off: quitarse. (to) slip on: ponerse. (to) slip out: escaparse. (to) slip out of: quitarse. (to) slip up: equivocarse, cometer un error/ cometer un desliz, meter la pata. (to) stand aside: apartarse, quitarse de en medio/ no tomar parte, mantenerse al margen. (to) stand back: apartarse, echarse hacia atrás, alejarse/ distanciarse ((from, de)). (to) stand by: cruzarse de brazos, quedarse sin hacer nada/ estar preparado,-a, estar listo,-a/ estar en estado de alerta/ no abandonar, respaldar, apoyar, defender/ atenerse a/ cumplir. (to) stand down: retirarse/ dimitir/ retirarse, abandonar el estrado. (to) stand for: significar, querer decir/ representar/ defender, apoyar, ser partidario,-a de/ tolerar, permitir, consentir. (to) stand in for: sustituir, suplir. (to) stand out: destacar, sobresalir/ destacarse, sobresalir/ oponerse ((against, a)). (to) stand over: vigilar a, velar a. (to) stand to: estar en estado de alerta/ poner en estado de alerta. (to) stand up: ponerse de pie, levantarse/ estar de pie/ ponte derecho/ resistir ((to, -)), soportar ((to, -))/ poner en posición vertical/ dejar plantado,-a a, dar un plantón a. (to) stand up for: defender: (support) apoyar. (to) stand up to: hacer frente a, resistir a. (to) show off: fardar, fanfarronear, presumir, lucirse/ hacerse el/la gracioso,-a/ hacer resaltar, realzar/ hacer alarde de, presumir de, fardar con, lucirse con. (to) show up: hacer resaltar, hacer destacar/ revelar, sacar a la luz, poner de manifiesto/ dejar en ridículo, poner en evidencia/ notarse, verse/ acudir, presentarse, aparecer. (to) stand aside: apartarse, quitarse de en medio/ no tomar parte, mantenerse al margen. (to) stand back: apartarse, echarse hacia atrás, alejarse/ distanciarse ((from, de)). (to) stand by: cruzarse de brazos, quedarse sin hacer nada/ estar preparado,-a, estar listo,-a/ estar en estado de alerta/ no abandonar, respaldar, apoyar, defender/ atenerse a/ cumplir. (to) stand down: retirarse/ dimitir/ retirarse, abandonar el estrado. (to) stand for: significar, querer decir/ representar/ defender, apoyar, ser partidario,-a de/ tolerar, permitir, consentir. (to) stand in for: sustituir, suplir. (to) stand out: destacar, sobresalir/ destacarse, sobresalir/ oponerse ((against, a)). (to) stand over: vigilar a, velar a. (to) stand to: estar en estado de alerta/ poner en estado de alerta. (to) stand up: ponerse de pie, levantarse/ estar de pie/ resistir ((to, -)), soportar ((to, -))/ poner en posición vertical/ dejar plantado,-a a, dar un plantón a. (to) stand up for: defender/ apoyar. (to) stand up to: hacer frente a, resistir a. (to) take after: parecerse a. (to) take apart: desmontar, deshacer/ echar por tierra. (to) take aside: llevar a un lado. (to) take away: llevarse, quitar/ restar/ llevar. (to) take back: recibir otra vez, aceptar algo devuelto/ readmitir/ devolver/ retirar, retractar/ hacer recordar. (to) take down: quitar, bajar/ desmontar/ apuntar/ humillar. (to) take for: tomar por. (to) take in: dar cobijo a, alojar, recoger/ engañar/ asimilar, entender, captar/ incluir, abarcar/ meterle a, estrechar. (to) take off: quitarse/ quitar, sacar/ llevar/ tomarse/ imitar/ descontar, rebajar/ despegar/ irse, marcharse/ hacerse popular, tener éxito, ponerse de moda. (to) take on: hacerse cargo de, encargarse de, aceptar/ asumir/ contratar, coger/ desafiar, enfrentarse con/ asumir, tomar, adquirir/ agitarse, ponerse nervioso,-a. (to) take out: sacar, quitar/ invitar a salir/ llevar de paseo/ hacerse, sacar/ obtener/ llevar comida a casa/ eliminar. (to) take out on: tomarla con, desquitarse con, descargarse. (to) take over: tomar (posesión de), apoderarse de/ ocupar/ absorber, adquirir/ hacerse cargo de/ asumir/ tomar el poder, hacerse con el poder/ entrar en funciones, relevar/ repasar/ enseñar, mostrar. (to) take over from: relevar, sustituir. (to) take to: tomar cariño a/ darse a/ empezar a, aficionarse a. (to) take up: ocupar/ llevar, subir/ quitar, levantar/ ocupar/ ocupar, llevar/ continuar, reanudar/ aceptar/ dedicarse a/ volver a/ acortar. (to) take upon: encargarse de. (to) take up on: hacer puntualizaciones sobre/ aceptar (una oferta). (to) take up with: empezar a salir con, entrar en relaciones con/ hablar de. (to) tell against: obrar en contra de. (to) tell apart: distinguir. (to) tell off: regañar, reñir/ destacar. (to) tell on: chivarse de. (to) tick away: transcurrir. (to) tick off: marcar, señalar/ regañar, reñir/ fastidiar, dar rabia. (to) tick over: marchar al ralentí, estar en marcha/ ir tirando. (to) throw about: derrochar. (to) throw away: tirar/ desaprovechar, perder/ malgastar, derrochar/ lanzar al aire. (to) throw back: devolver/ echar atrás. (to) throw back on: obligar a recurrir a. (to) throw in: incluir gratis/ sacar de banda. (to) throw off: deshacerse de, librarse de/ despistar/quitarse. (to) throw on: ponerse. (to) throw out: echar, expulsar/ rechazar/ tirar, tirar a la basura/ juntar de prisa/ improvisar/ juntar. (to) throw up: vomitar, devolver/ abandonar, renunciar a/ arrojar, dar, aportar/ revelar, poner en evidencia/ vomitar, devolver. (to) try for: tratar de obtener. (to) try on: probarse. (to) try out: probar, ensayar. (to) turn against: poner en contra/ ponerse en contra de. (to) turn around / turn round: volverse, darse la vuelta/ volver, darle la vuelta a. (to) turn away: no dejar entrar/ volver la cabeza, volver la espalda. (to) turn back: hacer retroceder, hacer volver/ retrasar/ volverse atrás. (to) turn down: rechazar, no aceptar/ denegar/ bajar/ doblar. (to) turn in: entregar a la policía/ acostarse. (to) turn off: desconectar/ apagar/ cerrar/ repugnar, dar asco a/ salir de/ apagarse/ salir. (to) turn on: conectar/ encender/ abrir/ poner en marcha, encender/ atacar, arremeter contra/ apuntar, dirigir/ excitar, entusiasmar/ depender de, girar en torno a/ encenderse. (to) turn out: apagar/ producir, fabricar/ vaciar/ desmoldar/ expulsar, echar/ salir, resultar/ salir/ asistir, acudir/ salir a la calle. (to) turn over: dar la vuelta a, volver, poner al revés/ dar vueltas a/ entregar/ volver/ facturar, hacer/ darse la vuelta/ volcar/ marchar en vacío, funcionar. (to) turn to: acudir a, recorrer a, recurrir a/ buscar, pasar a/ pasar a/ dedicarse a, recurrir a, darse a, empezar. (to) turn up: llegar, presentarse/ aparecer/ doblar hacia arriba, levantar/ acortar/ subir, poner más fuerte/ descubrir, encontrar. (to) wait about, (to) wait around: esperar, perder el tiempo. (to) wait behind: quedarse, quedarse para esperar a uno. (to) wait in: estar en casa esperando a uno. (to) wait on, (to) wait upon: servir a uno, desvivirse por mimar a uno. (to) wait out: quedarse hasta el final de, esperar más que uno. (to) wait up: velar, no acostarse, seguir sin acostarse. (to) wait upon: cumplimentar a uno, presentar sus respetos a uno. (to) walk about: pasearse, ir y venir. (to) walk across: cruzar. (to) walk around: dar una vuelta, pasearse. (to) walk away: irse, alejarse, negarse a, evadirse de. (to) walk away with: llevarse, copar, largarse con, robar. (to) walk back: volver a pie, regresar andando. (to) walk down: bajar a pie. (to) walk in: entrar, entrar sin llamar/ interrumpir a alguien. (to) walk into: entrar/ caer en una trampa/ ser embaucado/ chocar con/ dar con o contra/ topar/ tropezar con o contra/ devorar, zampar/ atacar a uno, arremeter a uno/ conseguir fácilmente un puesto. (to) walk off: quitarse un dolor de encima dando un paseo/ dar una vuelta para quitarse un dolor/ bajar la comida dando un paseo. (to) walk on: seguir andando o caminando/ salir de figurante. (to) walk out: salir, retirarse/ declararse en huelga/ marcharse/ abandonar a uno/ dejar plantado a alguien/ plantar a alguien. (to) walk over: atropellar a uno, tratar a uno a coces/ dar una paliza a alguien en algún deporte/ ganar/ ganar la carrera por ser el único caballo que participa. (to) walk through: ensayar por primera vez. (to) walk up: subir a pie