Tras haber creado mi anterior blog cecilmundo varias personas, muchos de ellos mis alumnos, me sugirieron que creara una secciòn dentro de cecilmundo para publicar mis obras de docencia de idiomas. Dado que la cantidad de documentos de explicaciones, ejercicios y exàmenes de inglès son muy numerosos porque tengo màs de 30 años del ejercicio de la docencia, preferì estrenar blog con mis alumnos a como ellos realmente merecen. En este blog planetcecil no solo iràn mis documentos didàcticos de inglès, sino tambièn la producciòn literaria de varios alumnos que se destacan en las letras. Tambièn darè oportunidad a aquellos que tienen excelentes obras pero que no han logrado publicarlas ya que en mi paìs Nicaragua todo se mueve por la marrana polìtica, y si una no pertenece a determinado partido no verà jamàs publicado su opus. Tambièn tenemos la desgracia de contar con seudoeditores quienes al no conocer verdaderamente de literatura se convierten en mercenarios de la imprenta solo para llenarse ellos mismo de dinero y fama a costillas de los escritores. Todos aquellos que deseen participar en este blog, denlo de antemano por suyo. Aunque lleve mi nombre en un arranque de egolatrìa, yo soy sencillamente vuestra servidora.Cecilia

Las alas de la educación

Las alas de la educación
La educación es un viaje sin final.

La lección de física

La lección de física
Casi aprendida

sábado, 27 de julio de 2013


Just place the name of the person o creature being described.
-. ´This beautiful and cruel woman  was a Roman Empress as the second wife of the Emperor Nero. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. The historians of antiquity describe her as a beautiful woman who used intrigues to become empress.She had been several times married when Nero fell in love with her. She intrigued to have Octaviana, Nero`s first wife, decapitated so she could marry him. She bore Nero a child, and when she was pregnant for a second time, she had a brawl with her husband due to his infidelities, so he kicked her in her stomach and killed both her and the baby. Nero went into deep mourning. Her body was not cremated, it was stuffed with spices, embalmed and put in the Mausoleum of Augustus. She was given a state funeral. Nero praised her during the funeral eulogy and gave her divine honors. After that in 67, Nero ordered a young freedman, Sporus, to be castrated and then married him; according to Dion Cassius, Sporus bore an uncanny resemblance to his late wife, and Nero even called him by his dead wife’s name.___________________
This philanderer, brawler and charlatan  was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar. After Caesar's assassination, this general  formed an official political alliance with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. This bonvivant and his lover the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII  was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire._____________________

 Roman jurist of Tyrian ancestry. He wrote his best known works  between AD 211 and 222. Perverted teenaged emperor Elagabalus (also known as Heliogabalus) banished him from Rome, but on the accession of Alexander (222) he was reinstated, and finally became the emperor's chief adviser and praefectus praetorio. This man was murdered in the palace, in the course of a riot between the soldiers and the mob, while others say he was dismounted from a horse and this caused his death as he hit the floor. _____________________
First bearded emperor of Rome, of Spanish origin. He built a wall in Britannia and deified his favorite Antinoo after the fellow drowned. He was a good administrator, traveled a lot and died of dropsy without leaving any heir. He promoted animal sacrifices through his bloody circus ___________________________.
Born in spring in Spain, he was a crowned philosopher. He had a promiscuous wife named Faustina, a white cat named Luna and he wrote a great book of stoic philosophical thoughts,Meditations. He fought in the Marcommanic Wars against Germanic tribes.________________
 Roman philosopher, statesman, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist. He is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.  This man was one of the most viciously and doggedly hunted among the proscribed. He was caught December 7, 43 BC leaving his villa in Formiae .]According to Plutarch, Herennius first slew him, then cut off his head. On  Marc Antony's instructions his hands, which had penned the Philippics against  Marc Antony, were cut off as well; these were nailed along with his head on the Rostra in the Forum Romanum according to the tradition of Marius and Sulla, both of whom had displayed the heads of their enemies in the Forum. According to Cassius Dio, Marc Antony's wife Fulvia took  the dead man´s  head, pulled out his tongue, and jabbed it repeatedly with her hairpin in final revenge against the guy´s  power of speech. ______________________
Son of Agrippina, Claudius´last wife, he was an Ahenobarba)golden beard). He loved music,sports,acting and being a show off. He set fire to Christians, ate grapes and played the lute while Roma burned, always demanded that he win any artistic pageant, killed his first wife by decapitation and his second one by kicking her in the pregnant belly. He married a eunuch and was the most corrupt of emperors.He was forced to commit suicide ._______________
Handsome and deranged, he came in a set of twins but his brother died. Son of Faustina and a gladiator, he was loved to distraction by Emperor Marcus Aurelius, so when this monarch died this man became emperor. He was killed in a bathtub by an athlete hired for the job by his lover Claudia Acte, who feared him after reading a list of people to be murdered(she was at the top of the list)._________________________________.
Brave and beautiful queen of the Iceni who refused to let  Suetonius Paulinus grab control of her territory. Widow of traitor king Prasutagus, both her daughters were raped by the Romans. She led a revolt against the Romans and almost defeated them, but she took poison so they would not capture her alive. ___________________
Spanish philosopher who was emperor Nero´s tutor, he was also a statesman, dramatist and humorist. He was blamed for a conspiracy to oust Nero, therefore his former pupil ordered him to commit suicide. Tacitus gives an account of the suicide, According to it, Nero ordered the philospher´s wife to be saved, for she wanted to follow him onto death. Her wounds were bound up and she made no further attempt to kill herself. As for Seneca himself, his age and diet were blamed for slow loss of blood, and extended pain rather than a quick death; taking poison was also not fatal. After dictating his last words to a scribe, and with a circle of friends attending him in his home, he immersed himself in a warm bath, which was expected to speed blood flow and ease his pain. _______________
 Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69.This man  was acclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. As a teenager, he had been one of Tiberius`pleasure boys. Twice married, he had two kids. War ensued, leading to a crushing defeat for this emperor at the Second Battle of Bedriacum in northern Italy. Once he realised his support was wavering, this fat man prepared to abdicate in favour of Vespasian, but was executed in Rome by Vespasian's soldiers on 22 December 69,while still hiding and gobbling on a piece of ham, and then thrown into the Tiber River. The head was cut off from his fat body, his son and brother were also slain.__________________
Very sweet and useful, this emperor was beloved not only by his Jewish paramour Princess Berenice, but also by the populace. He finished work on the Colosseum, and helped the population of the cities of Pompey and Herculanum, destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. He had been, as a young man, a great military commander. He died  from fevers, probably poisoned by his younger brother Domitian._______________
 Flavian Amphitheatre  is  in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, built of concrete and stone. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering. Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus,It is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin. About 200 cats live in the re, and they are rather happy and healthy.Among their benefactors figures Pope Benedict XVIth.___________

One of the greatest strategists in military history, son of Hamilcar Barca[82 was a Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history. He used war elephants to fight against Rome, yet most of them became popsicles in the crossing of the Alps. Married to Emilce, he committed suicide before the Romans could catch him alive. In  his first few years in Italy, he won three dramatic victories—Trebia, Trasimene, and Cannae, in which he distinguished himself for his ability to determine his and his opponent's strengths and weaknesses, and to play the battle to his strengths and the enemy's weaknesses—and won over many allies of Rome. He occupied much of Italy for 15 years, but a Roman counter-invasion of North Africa forced him to return to Carthage, where he was decisively defeated by Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama _____ Beautiful, gentle and wise steed,his name is a Latin adjective meaning "swift" or "at full gallop". According to Suetonius's Lives of the Twelve Caesars (121 ADthis creature had a stable of marble, with an ivory manger, purple blankets, and a collar of precious stones. Dio Cassius has indicated that the horse was attended to by servants, and was fed oats mixed with gold flake. Suetonius also wrote that it was said that Caligula made hims a consul, and that the horse would "invite" dignitaries to dine with him in a house outfitted with servants there to entertain such events.______________
First emperor of Rome, grandnephew of Julius Caesar. Small and sickly, nevertheless he had 3 successive wives. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators] The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Augustus in 31 BC By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule His reign initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax .He  died in 14 AD at the age of 75. He may have died from natural causes, but some rumors said his last wife did away with him.___________________________
This bard  was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him .He s traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from the time of its composition to the present day. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and arrive on the shores of Italy—in Roman mythology the founding act of Rome. ´____________
 Greatest authority on Etruscan history, half lame, ugly and wise, had several wives and got killed by the last one.Was succeded by Nero.________________ references.
with Virgil and Horace, this man is considered a great bard of ancient Rome Thrice married, twice divorced, this man had an affaire with Augustus´only daughter, which landed him in exile. __________
_ Took his name from the fact he wore military boots since he was a kid. His last wife gave him a daughter who was killed on the same day he got stabbed to death in his noble parts  by the Praetorian Guards, he was crazy and perverse and had named his own horse Incitatus as consul  First Roman emperor to de assassinated. Giveth them fun at the circus, not bread at the table, said ____________________

Founder of the Flavian dynasty, he adopted Jewish historian Flavius Josephus as his own son. Of peasant stock, he was hardworking, fair, modest, jovial and  a friend of the press, laid taxes on urinals and began building the Colosseum. He died by the trots  yet standing up to honor his people. I am becoming a god, were his last words. He was succeeded by his first- born Titus. First Roman emperor to be succeeded directly by his own son._______________________________
 was a Roman empress as the third wife of the Emperor Claudius. She was also a paternal cousin of the Emperor Nero, second cousin of the Emperor Caligula, and great-grandniece of the Emperor Augustus. A powerful and influential woman with a reputation for promiscuity, she conspired against her husband and was executed  on his orders when the plot was discovered._______________________.
She was a wonderful she -wolf who raised the twins who founded Rome. _____________, ____________ .



La esclava que ató al sultán Khurrem del imperio Otomano

La única reina otomana que logró que su amado se casara con ella formalmente fue Roxelana, una rusita a quien la historia reconoce bajo el nombre de Khurrem (el cual en turco significa "la risueña"). Khurrem fue una de las mujeres más amadas de la historia, y su cuota de poder fue realmente navegable. Segunda esposa del mejor sultán de la línea osmanlí, pero primera en su corazón, Khurrem en realidad sí supo reírse de su suerte.
Roxelana, que era el nombre que traía originalmente, vino al mundo en Rusia en enero de 1504, asumiendo algunos que era oriunda del Cáucaso mientras que otros afirman que vino al mundo como hija indeseada de una familia pibre de campesino bielorusos. Dado que la madre de Roxelana fue una esclava, la niña de cabellos rubio-rojizos y ojos magnétiicos pasó una infancia paupérrima y a menudo maltratada por los amos de su progenitora. Cuando ya era una preadolescente de formas ligeramente redondeadas, Roxelana fue capturada por soldados turcos, quienes la encontraron vagando con un grupo de tártaros errantes.
Fue llevada a Estambul, donde un mercader, tras confirmar que la chica aún poseía su "más valioso capital" (léase Sello de virginidad) vendieron un lote de esclavos que iban destinados al harén del sultán. Dado que Selim I El Adusto estaba más dedicado a guerrear y gruñir (ya para entonces tenía una úlcera galopante, los inicios del cáncer estomacal que lo llevó a la tumba y una impotencia recurrente), Roxelana no atrajo la atención del mandamás. Viendo su inteligencia natural, Roxelana fue alfabetizada y entrenada en las artes del canto, cocina, bordado, danza y refinamintos amatorios, sin obviar que aprendió persa, turco, griego y un poco de hebreo. Tomando en cuenta que era muy bromista y alegre, la bella chaparrita se vio apodada Khurrem, o "La Risueña".
Su excelencia en el bordado atrajo la atención de Hafise, la esposa de Selim y madre del heredero Solimán(a ser conocido tras su ascenso al trono como El Magnífico o El Legislador). Hay que reconocerle a Hafise que era una vieja intrigante que metía manos en todo, y aprovechando que su hijo Solimán le lució demasiado embobado por Mahi Debran Gulbehar(una princesa extranjera de pelo castaño y más tocinitos que un lechón de banquete después de haberle parido a Mustafá a Solimán), quiso quedar bien con su hijo y le presentó a la hermosa rusita.
El coup de foudre- que es a como llaman los franceses al amor fulminate a primera vista-fue instantáneo para el bello Solimán, quien no tuvo paz hasta que se llevó a su "ojos de gacela" (que era el apodo cariñoso para Khurrem) a la cama. Una vez ahí, Khurrem echó a funcionar todo su encanto y sensualidad para amarrar a Solimán, quien subió al trono en 1520 cuando Selim I El Adusto se fue a rabiar al otro mundo. Solimán estaba sencillamente extasiado con su sonriente rusita, a tal punto que cuando la chica le pidió que se librara de sus estorbos (la primera consorte Mahi Debran Gulbehar y el hijo de ambos Mustafá), Solimán no la pensó dos veces para mandarlos lejos a un dorado exilio. 4 hijos, incluyendo a la princesa MirhriMah fueron el fruto de los amores entre Solimán y Khurrem.
Mahi Debran Gulbehar estaba asustada de verse tan fácilmente reemplazada. Culpó a su suegra Hafise por haberle "maleado" la relación con Solimán, y en una de las escenas más violentas ocurridas dentro del harén, la lloriqueante y olvidada gordiflona en que se convirtió Mahi Debran Gulbehar se lanzó encima de Khurrem tratando de destrozarle el rostro a arañazos. Fue necesario que intervinieran los eunucos y hasta Hafise, a quien las litigantes mujeres casi siembran en una ventana, para que acabara la reyerta de las celosas mujeres. Solimán se moría de vergüenza, y le echó la culpa a su primer consorte.
Combinando astucia con lágrimas, Khurrem le espetó a su hombre que la culpa era suya pues nunca se había casado formalmente con ella, y por eso su rival creía tener más derecho. Solimán cayó en la trampa en la cual ningún otro sultán se hundió: el matrimonio legal. Jamás en la línea de Osman se había efectuado un matrimonio entre el sultán y una consorte. La ley musulmana le asignaba al sultán el derecho de tener cuatro kadins-o "esposas", siendo la privilegiada la bas-kadin o madre del heredero al trono. Esta relación entre el sultán y sus "esposas" no conllevaba papel chiquito ni grande, ni siquiera un juramento religioso. La primera en concebir a un hijo varón sencillamente pasaba a ser bas-kadin, y las otras tres como kadins tenían menos poder. El enamoradísimo Solimán optó por casarse con su ex esclava, convertida ahora en ama y señora de toda su voluntad y acciones. Rompiendo con la tradición de que un sultán jamás diera palabra o firma formal a una mujer , Solimán cayó en las garras de su adorada rusita. Khurrem pronto estableció un reino del terror dentro y fuera del harén. Celosa de la intimidad entre Solimán y su gran visir, el pelirrojo Ibrahim, intrigó hasta que Solimán se creyó el chisme de que Ibrahim cometía graves abusos de poder.
Khurrem logró pronto ver a su enemigo no sólo despojado del cargo, sino también ejecutado sin piedad. Teniendo ya hijos varones propios, Khurrem intrigó para quitarse del medio a Mustafá, el primogénito de Solimán habido con Mahi Debran Gulbehar. Khurrem acusó al chico de planificar un complot para asesinar a su propio padre, y el heredero al trono acabó eliminado por las mismas órdenes de Solimán. De esta forma Selim, el hijo pelirrojo de Khurrem y Solimán, acabaría siendo el sucesor de Solimán a la muerte de éste. Khurrem al final de su vida se dedicó a patrocinar a artistas y arquitectos, gozando de una enorme cuota de poder que Solimán le dio.
Su hija Mirhimar se hizo tan poderosa y encantadora como ella. Como prueba del inmenso amor que Solimán le profesó a Khurrem están más de 400 poemas que le escribió a lo largo de tantos años de relación. Khurrem conservó su belleza hasta su muerte de 1558, ocho años antes de que falleciera Solimán mientras andaba en campaña en Europa. Tras su muerte y sepultura en la mezquita, Solimán, la leyenda de esta subyugante ex esclava la convirtió en uno de los íconos más venerados de la cultura osmanlí. Amante de los gatos y los pericos, Khurrem también benefició a numerosos artistas y sus obras sociales incluyen donativos para huérfanos de guerra. Solimán jamás volvió a amar a mujer alguna tras la muerte de su adorado tormento, y en los días posteriores al deceso de Khurrem olvidó hasta el pudor, ya que lloraba en público. No se separaba de Zuleika, una enorme gata negra persa que Khurrem le había regalado en 1554, tras la muerte de la famosa angora Atja. La historia otomana la recuerda como la única mujer en "llevarse el gato al agua" del matrimonio, y una de las intrigantes más audaces de todos los tiempos, habiendo escalado desde esclava a reina absoluta.


c. 570 CE  Birth of Muhammad. 
c. 610 CE  Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca. 
c. 610-22 CE  Muhammad preaches in Mecca. 
622 CE  Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.
Islamic calendar (AH, Anno Hegirae) begins. 
624 CE  Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr. 
625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud. 
630 Muslims capture Mecca. Ka'ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad 
632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.
632-33 Wars of ridda (apostasy) restore allegiance to Islam 
633 Muslim conquests (Futuhat) begin. 
633-42 Muslim armies take the Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia), North African coast, parts of Persian and Byzantine Empires
c. 650  Caliph Uthman has the Qur'an written down. 
656 Uthman is murdered; Ali becomes fourth caliph.
657 Battle of Siffin. Mu'awiya, governor of Syria, claims the caliphate.
659 Arbitration at Adruh is opposed by Ali's supporters. 
661 Ali is murdered; Mu'awiya becomes caliph. Beginning of Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). 
680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect. 
685-705 Reign of Abd al-Malik. Centralization of administration - Arabic becomes official written language (instead of Greek and Persian) and Arab coinage is established. 
late 600s  Ruling classes in East and West Africa convert to Islam. 
700-800s Groups of ascetics and mystics begin to form 
710 Arab armies enter Spain from North Africa. 
732 Muslim empire reaches its furthes extent. Battle of Tours prevents further advance northwards. 
747 Revolt defeats the Umayyads. 
750 Abu l'Abbas becomes caliph in Iraq 
754 Baghdad (Madinat al-Salam, "city of peace") becomes the new capital of the Abbasid empire. 
755 Abd ar-Rahman founds an Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, Spain.
765 Division within Shi'ites - majority are the modern Imamiyya (Twelvers) who co-exist with Abbasid caliphs; minority are more extreme Isma'iliyaa (Seveners).
786-809 Reign of Harun ar-Rashid, best known through the stories of The Thousand and One Nights. 
800s Written collections of Hadith (sayings of the Prophet) are compiled. Sicily comes under Muslim rule. 
813-33 Reign of Ma'mun. Theological controversy over whether the Qur'an is created or uncreated and eternal. Center for translation of texts from Greek to Arabic founded in Baghdad.
869-883 Uprisings of black slaves (Zanj) are eventually defeated. 
908 First Fatimid caliph in Tunisia. 
928 Umayyad Abd ar-Rahman III declares himself caliph in Cordoba. 
940 Muhammad al-Mahdi, the twelfth imam, disappears. Twelvers still await the future return of the "Hidden Imam." 
945 The Buyids (Persian) invade Baghdad and take power from caliph. 
969 Fatimids gain power in Egypt and attack Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. Cairo (Al-Qahira, "the victorious city") is founded. 
980-1037 Life of Avicenna, Iranian physician and Aristotelian philosopher. 
996-1021 Reign of Fatimid al-Hakim. Hamza ibn Ali forms basis of esoteric Druze religion. 
late 900s  West Africa begins to convert to Islam 
1030 Umayyad caliphate in Cordoba defeated by the Christian Reconquista. 
1055 Seljuk Turks take Baghdad; Abbasids now only nominal rulers. 
1000s Reconquista takes more of Spain, Sicily falls to the Normans, Crusader kingdoms are briefly established in Palestine and Syria. 
1071 Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert. 
1090 Hasan-i Sabbah takes Alamut in the Persian mountains, the Assassin sect forms around him. 
1099 Christian Crusaders take Jerusalem. 
1100-1200s Sufi orders (turuq) are founded. 
1126-98 Life of Averroës, Muslim philosopher from Cordoba who sought to integrate Islam with Greek thought. 
1171 Fatimid power ends in Egypt with the conquests of Saladin. 
1174 Saladin declares himself sultan of Egypt and Syria. 
1193 Death of Saladin; most of Crusader states have returned to Islam. 
1200s Assassins wipes out by the Mongols. Indian rulers in Delhi take title of Sultan. Spanish mystic Muhyi al-Din ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) flourishes. 
1221 Genghis Khan and the Mongols enter Persia. 
1241 Mongols take the Punjab.
1258 Mongols capture Baghdad; city is sacked and caliph is killed. End of Abbasid caliphate. 
1281-1324 Reign of Uthman (Osman), who founds the Ottoman Empire. Muslim merchants and missionary Sufis settle in SE Asia. 
mid-1300s Ottomans capture Bursa and Iznik and move into Europe. 
1366 Capital of Ottoman Empire moved from Bursa to Adrianople.
late 1300s Ottomans take control of the Balkans.
1400s  Islam reaches the Philippines. 
1453 Mehmet Fatih (rules 1451-81) conquers Constantinople. The two halves of the Ottoman Empire are united and the sultan becomes Byzantine emperor. 
1492 Castile and Aragon capture Granada. All Muslims (and Jews) expelled from Spain.
1501 Isma'il (1487-1524) claims to be the Hidden Imam and is proclaimed Shah (king) of Persia. Twelver Shi'ism becomes official religion of Persia.
1516 Ottomans conquer Syria and Egypt. 
1517 Ottomans control Mecca and Medina. 
1520-66 Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent; Ottoman Empire reaches its zenith. Hungary and coastlands of Algeria and Tunisia come under Ottoman rule. 
1526 Babur (Mongolian) seizes the Delhi sultanate and takes control of northern India. 
1556 Akbar founds the Mughal dynasty in northern India. 
1600-1700s Venetians, Habsburgs, and Russians divide European Ottoman lands between them. 
1625 Java comes under rule of Muslim kingdom of Mataram. 
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz confirms first substantial losses of Ottoman Empire in Europe. 
1700s Muhammad Abd al-Wahhab rejects Sufism and all innovation (bid'a). Founds what becomes the Saudi Arabian kingdom. Hindus regain power from Mughals in northern India. 
1738 Mughal empire invaded by the Afghans.
1779 Afghans ousted by Qajar dynasty, which rules Persia until 1925. 
1798 Napoleon's expedition to Egypt.
1805 Muhammad Ali becomes governor of Egypt, which becomes independent of the Ottomans, gains control of western Arabia and extends into the Sudan. 
1807-76 Tanzimat period. Ottoman Empire undergoes extensive program of modernization in government, law, and medicine.
1830 Greece regains independence from Ottomans. 
1850s Non-Muslim Ottoman citizens granted equality with Muslims. 
1858 Last Mughal in India is deposed and India comes under British rule. 
1876-1908 Reign of Abd al-Hamid II; autocratic and religiously conservative period in Ottoman rule. 
1878 Congress of Berlin recognizes independence of Balkan states previously under Muslim rule. 
1882-1952 Egypt occupied by the British. 
1908-18 Last decade of Ottoman rule. Rise of nationalistic "Young Turks." More liberal policies develop. 
1912 Founding of Islamic Union (Sareket Islam), a modernizing movement in SE Asia. 
1918 Fall of Ottoman Empire. League of Nations grants Britain mandatory status over Palestine and Iraq, and France over Lebanon and Syria. 
1923 Republic of Turkey established. Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) is first president.
1927 Tablighi Jamaat reform movement founded in India. 
1928 Ikhwan al-Muslimun (Muslim Brothers) founded in Egypt. 
1941 Jamaat-i Islami reform movement founded in Lahore, India. 
1945 Indonesia becomes independent republic. 
1945-60s Islam spreads to the West with mass migrations from Asia, Africa, and India. 
1947 Pakistan founded as an Islamic nation. Islam becomes a minority religion in India. 
1957 Independent Malayan state established with Islam as the official religion but guaranteed tolerance. 
1960s Familes from SE Asia and North Africa emigrate to Europe and the Americas. 
1979 Shah of Iran is overthrown by Ayatullah Ruhullah Khumayni, who establishes strict fundamentalist rule of Shi'a principles. 
late 1990s  Taliban come to power in Afghanistan.
2001 Muslim extremists attack the United States. 
2003 Saddam Hussein ousted by Western forces. 



Choose the best answer from the four options and circle its letter only.
1.       Omar Khayyam was:
a.       A Persian poet who wrote the Rubaiyat.
b.      A dissident son of Muhammad the prophet.
c.        The first caliph of the Umayyad dynasty.
d.       None of the above.
2.       Muhammad:
a.       Was the founder of Islam, was persecuted and fled to Medina while trying to win his struggle.
b.      Was the loving second husband of rich Khadija, for whom he worked.
c.        Put together the Qu{ran and  established Allah as the only god.
d.      All the above.
3.        The kaaba:
a.       Is located under the Kremlin in Russia.
b.      Is a huge black stone around which Muslim pilgrims pray during the Haj.
c.       Is a tool box where Jews put away their implements.
d.      Contains many left hands of people who used them for clean deeds.
4.       All these empires were based on Islamic beliefs and practices:
a.       Mongol, Byzantine, Osmanli and Roman.
b.      Ottoman, Umayyad, Safavid, Mughal .
c.        Osmanli, Ottoman, Persian and Greek.
d.       Mongol, Mughal, Ottoman and Byzantine.
5.       Powerful women in the Islamic empires were:
a.       Theodora of Byzantium, princess Zuleika of Serbia, Bas kadin Khurrem.
b.      Empress Nur jehan of the Mughal Empire, Bas Kadin Khurrem of the Ottoman empire, Empress Mumtaz Mahal of the Mughal dynasty.
c.        Princess Zuleika of Serbia, ikbal Sechir Para of the Ottoman Empire, bas-khadin Nurbanu of the Ottoman empire.
d.      None of the above.
6.       Widespread Islamic customs include:
a.       Burping discreetly to praise the cook after eating.
b.      Passing wind through the lower body to praise the cook before eating.
c.       Never using the left hand except for dirty tasks.
d.      Only a and c

7.       Women held ranks in the Ottoman empire in this fashion:
8.       This was the hierarchy in Ottoman Turkey:
a. Sultana valideh as mother of the reigning sultan, bas kadin as head wife, kadin after bearing a male child, ikbal upon being the sultan´s lover or bearing him a daughter, and guzdeh when the lady was already having a sexless romance with the sultan.
b. Ikbal as the most powerful in charge of the eunuchs of the harem, the sultana valideh if she managed to kill the sultan.
c. sha if the lady had a boy cild, voivode if she had a girl child and guzdeh if she just flirted with the sultan.
d. all of the above.

9.       The sword of Ayub was the weapon used during the ceremony in which the new sultan was anointed in the Ottoman succession.It followed as:
a.       A swing at the feet to test the new monarch´s agility, a slap in the buttocks to remind him the people could rep´rimand him, and pouring of olive oil on his ears so he heard well.
b.      A light touch on the head with the sword, to remind him to be wise, another on the chest to have his heart love his people, another touch at the testes to wish him a good son to follow him, and another at his feet so he could guide his people along the right path.
c.       A slap on the cheek to make him blush and learn humility, a touch on the belly to remind him to feed his people and a nudge on his cat to remind him to be an ecological sovereign.
d.      None of the above.
10.   Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror or Fatih of Bizantium dictated the laws of succession as:
a.       All brothers and sisters should be bowstringed when the new sultan prepares to take oath  after the old sultan dies, and buried in mausoleums.
b.      All male siblings of the new sultan should be killed, but not by the new monarch because Islam forbids brother killing brother. This is to avoid rivalries. Women siblings are not to be killed, but her male sons yes.
c.       The mother of the new sultan should be quickly strangled to avoid her meddling in the whole affaire.
d.      All of the above
11.   The Umayyad empire or caliphate :
a.       was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. It was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty, whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph. Although the Umayyad family originally came from the city of Mecca, their capital was Damascus.
b.       We owe their bankers the invention of the check.
c.       They invented ice cream, rugs and they had a prince named Tariq who committed suicide after he went to Spain.
d.      A and b only.

12.   . In January 750 in the Battle of the Zab, the Umayyads were defeated. Damascus fell to the Abbasids in April, and in August  royal Marwan was killed in Egypt.What happened next to the Umayyads?
a.       One grandson of Hisham,a proud prince named  Abd ar-Rahman I, survived and established a kingdom in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).
b.      They called Byzantium for help but never got it.
c.       Alexander the Great saved them and put Hisham back on the throne.
d.      None of the above.
13.This was the social division in the Umayyad Empire: The Umayyad Caliphate exhibited four main social classes:1.Muslim Arabs2.Muslim non-Arabs (clients of the Muslim Arabs)3.Non-Muslim free persons (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians)4.Slaves. Thus:
a. The Muslim Arabs were at the top of the society, and saw it as their duty to rule over the conquered areas.
b. the non Muslims were second class citizens but could worship as they pleased.
c. Christians were crucified.
d. only a and b.
14. Abbasid Empire:
a. is named thus because of their prominent relative of Muhammad .
b. was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region.
c. went to war often against the Roman empire.
d. a and b only.
15. The Safavid empire:
a. was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran. They ruled one of the greatest Persian empires after the Muslim conquest of Persia.
b. The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and at their height, they controlled all of modern Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia, most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus, as well as parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey. Safavid Iran was one of the Islamic "gunpowder empires", along with its neighbours, the Ottoman and Mughal empires.
c. the first main ruler was Timur Lenk.
d. a and b.
16. The Janissaries were:
a. an elite corps, the royal guard of the Ottoman sultan, formed by young Christian boys from conquered territories, specially trained for choicest missions.They  were infantry  units that formed the Ottoman  Sultan 's household troops and bodyguards . The force was created by the Sultan Murad I  in 1383 and was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II  in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident
b. sometimes they deposed or anointed sultans, depending on the capacity of the reigning ruler. From 1380s to 1648, the Janissaries were gathered through the devşirme  system. This was the recruiting of non-Turkish children, notably Balkan Christians; Jews were never subject to devşirme, nor were children from Turkic families. In early days, all Christians were enrolled indiscriminately; later, those from Albania, Greece, Bosnia, Serbia and Bulgaria were preferred
c. they were created by Sha Tamasp of the Safavid empire to go and attack the Mughals.
d. a and b only.
17. The Mevlevi order of dervishes:
a. were elegant and tall religious monks of the Sufi order who danced to praise Allah. / Mevleviye is a Sufi  order founded in Konya  (in the Ottoman Empire ) by the followers of Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi-Rumi , a 13th-century Persian poet , Islamic jurist , and theologian . They are also known as the Whirling Dervishes due to their famous practice of whirling  as a form of dhikr  (remembrance of God
b .were present at the anointment of sultans while the new ruler received the sword of Ayub in a ceremony.
c. after their first ten performances were sold off as slaves to the Mughal monarchs.
d. a and b only.
18. The Mughal empire:
a. was created by the Timurid descendant Babur the Tiger, when he defeated sultan Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in April 1526.
b. Babur the Tiger was not only the first Mughalmonarch but also a self-taught journalist who wrote the Baburnama.
c. his son Humayun, who was a weak and intellectual diabetic, was left as his heir when Babur died.
d. all of the above.
19. Going down the Mughal dynasty:
a. Weak Humayun lost his throne due to his inexperience, and while his usurper was ruling in India,  and having to flee from city to city, Humayun eventually sought refuge at the court of Tahmasp. Tahmasp, who refused to hand him over to his brother, greeted Humayun at his court in Qazvin as the true emperor of the Mughal dynasty, despite the fact that Humayun had been living in exile for more than fifteen years Humayun managed to regain his throne, only to die from a fall down the stairs when he had an attack of neuropathies.
b. Humayun was the father of the great, wise, vegetarian and tolerant Akbar the Great, best ruler of India.Akbar the Great was patron of the arts and sciences, refused to eat meat yet when he died his son Jahangir held a party to celebrate his demise.
c. Jahangir son of Akbar, husband to beautiful and manipulating Noor Jehan, was a weak ruler who let his wife rule for him while he was on a drunken spell. Father to Sha Jahan, who ended up building the Taj Mahal with the aid of 1000 elephants after his adored wife Mumtaz Mahal died in childbirth in the Deccan having his fourteenth baby.
d. all the above is fact.

20. Aurangzeb, last strong ruler of the Mughal dynasty,
a. was the son of Sha Jahan who deposed his grieving dad and had him locked in the Red Fortress. From his window the white haired Sha Jahan mournfully saw how the Taj was being built. He buried his wife there, and when he died, he was buried there. Aurangzeb also killed two of his brothers to snatch the throne.
b. Aurangzeb was a builder ruler, raised taxes for non Muslims, studied the blue snouted bats of India and stuffed a few of them for future studies, was a fanatic Muslim.
c. He was of the view that royal treasury does not belong to king but common man. He did not use any of the royal treasury for him and his family. In fact, he used to copy and sell his editions of  holy Qur'an and earn money for it,  and his wife used to weave caps and copies of the holy quran to support his earnings.
d. all of the aforementioned.