**CRR´s number info explanation**

Cardinal numbers

0

Zero

1

One

11

eleven

10

ten

2

two

12

twelve

20

Twenty

3

Three

13

thirteen

30

thirty

4

four

14

fourteen

40

Forty (no "u")

5

Five

15

fifteen

50

fifty (note "f", not "v")

6

six

16

sixteen

60

Sixty

7

Seven

17

seventeen

70

seventy

8

eight

18

eighteen (only one "t")

80

Eighty (only one "t")

9

Nine

19

nineteen

90

ninety

If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, one should write the number as two words separated by a hyphen.

21

twenty-one

25

twenty-five

32

thirty-two

58

fifty-eight

64

sixty-four

79

seventy-nine

83

eighty-three

99

ninety-nine

In English, the hundreds are perfectly regular, except that the word hundred remains in its singular form regardless of the number preceding it (obviously, one may on the other hand say "hundreds of people flew in", or the like)

100

one hundred

200

two hundred

…

…

900

nine hundred

So are the thousands, with the number of thousands followed by the word "thousand"

1,000

one thousand

2,000

two thousand

…

…

10,000

ten thousand

11,000

eleven thousand

…

…

20,000

twenty thousand

21,000

twenty-one thousand

30,000

thirty thousand

85,000

eighty-five thousand

100,000

one hundred thousand

999,000

nine hundred and ninety-nine thousand (British English)nine hundred ninety-nine thousand (American English)

1,000,000

one million

In informal English, exact numbers larger than one million are seldom named, except perhaps for dramatic effect.

There is more than one way of forming intermediate numbers. One way is for when you are counting something. Another way is for when you are using numbers as labels. The second column method is used much more often in American English than British English. The third column is used in British English, but rarely in American English (although the use of the second and third columns is not necessarily directly interchangeable between the two regional variants). In other words, the British dialect can seemingly adopt the American way of counting, but it is specific to the situation (in this example, bus numbers).

Common British vernacular

Common American vernacular

Common British vernacular

"How many marbles do you have?"

"What is your house number?"

"Which bus goes to the high street?"

101

"A hundred and one."

"One-oh-one."Here, "oh" is used for the digit zero.

"One-oh-one."

109

"A hundred and nine."

"One-oh-nine."

"One-oh-nine."

110

"A hundred and ten."

"One-ten."

"One-one-oh."

117

"A hundred and seventeen."

"One-seventeen."

"One-one-seven."

120

"A hundred and twenty."

"One-twenty."

"One-two-oh."

152

"A hundred and fifty-two."

"One-fifty-two."

"One-five-two."

208

"Two hundred and eight."

"Two-oh-eight."

"Two-oh-eight."

334

"Three hundred and thirty-four."

"Three-thirty-four."

"Three-three-four."

Note: When writing a cheque (or check), the number 100 is always written "one hundred". It is never "a hundred".

Note that in American English it is non-standard to use the word and before tens and ones. It is instead used as a verbal delimiter when dealing with compound numbers. Thus, instead of "three hundred and seventy-three", Americans usually say (and write) "three hundred seventy-three".

For numbers above a million, there are two different systems for naming numbers in English:

the long scale (decreasingly used in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a milliard (but the latter usage is now rare), and billion is used for a million million.

the short scale (always used in American English and increasingly in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a billion, and the word milliard is not used

Number notation

Powernotation

Short scale

Long scale

1,000,000

106

one million

one million

1,000,000,000

109

one billiona thousand million

one milliarda thousand million

1,000,000,000,000

1012

one trilliona thousand billion

one billiona million million

1,000,000,000,000,000

1015

one quadrilliona thousand trillion

one billiarda thousand billion

1,000,000,000,000,000,000

1018

one quintilliona thousand quadrillion

one trilliona million billion

Although British English has traditionally followed the long-scale numbering system, the short-scale usage has become increasingly common in recent years. For example, the UK Government and BBC websites use the newer short-scale values exclusively.

Here are some approximate composite large numbers in American English:

Quantity

Written

Pronounced

1,200,000

1.2 million

one point two million

3,000,000

3 million

three million

250,000,000

250 million

two hundred fifty million

6,400,000,000

6.4 billion

six point four billion

Often, large numbers are written with (preferably non-breaking) half-spaces or thin spaces separating the thousands (and, sometimes, with normal spaces or apostrophes) instead of commas—to ensure that confusion is not caused in countries where a decimal comma is used. Thus, a million is often written 1 000 000.

In some areas, a point (. or ·) may also be used as a

Cardinal numbers

0

Zero

1

One

11

eleven

10

ten

2

two

12

twelve

20

Twenty

3

Three

13

thirteen

30

thirty

4

four

14

fourteen

40

Forty (no "u")

5

Five

15

fifteen

50

fifty (note "f", not "v")

6

six

16

sixteen

60

Sixty

7

Seven

17

seventeen

70

seventy

8

eight

18

eighteen (only one "t")

80

Eighty (only one "t")

9

Nine

19

nineteen

90

ninety

If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, one should write the number as two words separated by a hyphen.

21

twenty-one

25

twenty-five

32

thirty-two

58

fifty-eight

64

sixty-four

79

seventy-nine

83

eighty-three

99

ninety-nine

In English, the hundreds are perfectly regular, except that the word hundred remains in its singular form regardless of the number preceding it (obviously, one may on the other hand say "hundreds of people flew in", or the like)

100

one hundred

200

two hundred

…

…

900

nine hundred

So are the thousands, with the number of thousands followed by the word "thousand"

1,000

one thousand

2,000

two thousand

…

…

10,000

ten thousand

11,000

eleven thousand

…

…

20,000

twenty thousand

21,000

twenty-one thousand

30,000

thirty thousand

85,000

eighty-five thousand

100,000

one hundred thousand

999,000

nine hundred and ninety-nine thousand (British English)nine hundred ninety-nine thousand (American English)

1,000,000

one million

In informal English, exact numbers larger than one million are seldom named, except perhaps for dramatic effect.

There is more than one way of forming intermediate numbers. One way is for when you are counting something. Another way is for when you are using numbers as labels. The second column method is used much more often in American English than British English. The third column is used in British English, but rarely in American English (although the use of the second and third columns is not necessarily directly interchangeable between the two regional variants). In other words, the British dialect can seemingly adopt the American way of counting, but it is specific to the situation (in this example, bus numbers).

Common British vernacular

Common American vernacular

Common British vernacular

"How many marbles do you have?"

"What is your house number?"

"Which bus goes to the high street?"

101

"A hundred and one."

"One-oh-one."Here, "oh" is used for the digit zero.

"One-oh-one."

109

"A hundred and nine."

"One-oh-nine."

"One-oh-nine."

110

"A hundred and ten."

"One-ten."

"One-one-oh."

117

"A hundred and seventeen."

"One-seventeen."

"One-one-seven."

120

"A hundred and twenty."

"One-twenty."

"One-two-oh."

152

"A hundred and fifty-two."

"One-fifty-two."

"One-five-two."

208

"Two hundred and eight."

"Two-oh-eight."

"Two-oh-eight."

334

"Three hundred and thirty-four."

"Three-thirty-four."

"Three-three-four."

Note: When writing a cheque (or check), the number 100 is always written "one hundred". It is never "a hundred".

Note that in American English it is non-standard to use the word and before tens and ones. It is instead used as a verbal delimiter when dealing with compound numbers. Thus, instead of "three hundred and seventy-three", Americans usually say (and write) "three hundred seventy-three".

For numbers above a million, there are two different systems for naming numbers in English:

the long scale (decreasingly used in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a milliard (but the latter usage is now rare), and billion is used for a million million.

the short scale (always used in American English and increasingly in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a billion, and the word milliard is not used

Number notation

Powernotation

Short scale

Long scale

1,000,000

106

one million

one million

1,000,000,000

109

one billiona thousand million

one milliarda thousand million

1,000,000,000,000

1012

one trilliona thousand billion

one billiona million million

1,000,000,000,000,000

1015

one quadrilliona thousand trillion

one billiarda thousand billion

1,000,000,000,000,000,000

1018

one quintilliona thousand quadrillion

one trilliona million billion

Although British English has traditionally followed the long-scale numbering system, the short-scale usage has become increasingly common in recent years. For example, the UK Government and BBC websites use the newer short-scale values exclusively.

Here are some approximate composite large numbers in American English:

Quantity

Written

Pronounced

1,200,000

1.2 million

one point two million

3,000,000

3 million

three million

250,000,000

250 million

two hundred fifty million

6,400,000,000

6.4 billion

six point four billion

Often, large numbers are written with (preferably non-breaking) half-spaces or thin spaces separating the thousands (and, sometimes, with normal spaces or apostrophes) instead of commas—to ensure that confusion is not caused in countries where a decimal comma is used. Thus, a million is often written 1 000 000.

In some areas, a point (. or ·) may also be used as a

**thousands' separator**

**, but then, the decimal separator must be a comma.**

**Specialised numbers**

A few numbers have special names (in addition to their regular names):

0: has several other names, depending on context:

naught / nought: mostly British usage

oh: used when spelling numbers (like telephone, bank account, bus line)

nil: in general sport scores (chiefly British, although American use in sports scores is common)

love: in tennis; origin disputed

zilch, nada, null, zip: used when stressing nothingness; this is true especially in combination with one another: "You know nothing—zero, zip, nada, zilch!"

nix: also used as a verb

12: a dozen (first power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

13: a baker's dozen

20: a score (first power of the vigesimal base), nowadays archaic; famously used in the opening of the Gettysburg Address: "Four score and seven years ago..."

120: a great hundred(twelve tens; as opposed to the small hundred, i.e. 100 or ten tens), also called

A few numbers have special names (in addition to their regular names):

0: has several other names, depending on context:

naught / nought: mostly British usage

oh: used when spelling numbers (like telephone, bank account, bus line)

nil: in general sport scores (chiefly British, although American use in sports scores is common)

love: in tennis; origin disputed

zilch, nada, null, zip: used when stressing nothingness; this is true especially in combination with one another: "You know nothing—zero, zip, nada, zilch!"

nix: also used as a verb

12: a dozen (first power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

13: a baker's dozen

20: a score (first power of the vigesimal base), nowadays archaic; famously used in the opening of the Gettysburg Address: "Four score and seven years ago..."

120: a great hundred(twelve tens; as opposed to the small hundred, i.e. 100 or ten tens), also called

**small gross**

**(ten dozens), both archaic; also sometimes referred to as duodecimal hundred**

144: a gross (a dozen dozens, second power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

1728: a great gross (a dozen gross, third power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

10,000: a myriad(a hundred hundred), commonly used in the sense of an indefinite very high number

100,000: a lakh (a hundred thousand), loanword used mainly in Indian English

10,000,000: a crore (a hundred lakh), loanword used mainly in Indian English

10100: googol(1 followed by 100 zeros), used in mathematics; not to be confused with the name of the search engine Google (which is actually a pun on googol)

10googol: googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros)

10googolplex: googolduplex (1 followed by a googolplex of zeros)

Combinations of numbers in most sports scores are read as in the following examples:

1–0 British English: one nil; American English: one-nothing, or one-zero

0–0 British English: nil-nil, or nil all; American English: zero-zero, or nothing-nothing

2–2 two-two (or two to two, or two all)

144: a gross (a dozen dozens, second power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

1728: a great gross (a dozen gross, third power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce

10,000: a myriad(a hundred hundred), commonly used in the sense of an indefinite very high number

100,000: a lakh (a hundred thousand), loanword used mainly in Indian English

10,000,000: a crore (a hundred lakh), loanword used mainly in Indian English

10100: googol(1 followed by 100 zeros), used in mathematics; not to be confused with the name of the search engine Google (which is actually a pun on googol)

10googol: googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros)

10googolplex: googolduplex (1 followed by a googolplex of zeros)

Combinations of numbers in most sports scores are read as in the following examples:

1–0 British English: one nil; American English: one-nothing, or one-zero

0–0 British English: nil-nil, or nil all; American English: zero-zero, or nothing-nothing

2–2 two-two (or two to two, or two all)

**Ordinal numbers**

Here are some ordinal numbers.

0th

zeroth (see below)

1st

first

11th

eleventh

10th

tenth

2nd

second

12th

twelfth (note "f", not "v")

20th

twentieth

3rd

third

13th

thirteenth

30th

thirtieth

4th

fourth

14th

fourteenth

40th

fortieth

5th

fifth

15th

fifteenth

50th

fiftieth

6th

sixth

16th

sixteenth

60th

sixtieth

7th

seventh

17th

seventeenth

70th

seventieth

8th

eighth (only one "t")

18th

eighteenth

80th

eightieth

9th

ninth (no "e")

19th

nineteenth

90th

ninetieth

Zeroth only has a meaning when counts start with zero, which happens in a mathematical or computer science context.

Ordinal numbers such as 21st, 33rd, etc, are formed by combining a cardinal ten with an ordinal unit.

21st

twenty-first

25th

twenty-fifth

32nd

thirty-second

58th

fifty-eighth

64th

sixty-fourth

79th

seventy-ninth

83rd

eighty-third

99th

ninety-ninth

Higher ordinals are not usually written in words. They are written using digits and letters as described below. Here are some rules that should be borne in mind.

The suffixes -th, -st, -nd and -rd are usually written raised above the number itself (as superscript)

If the tens digit of a number is 1, then write "th" after the number. For example: 13th, 19th, 112th, 9311th.

If the tens digit is not equal to 1, then use the following table:

If the unit's digit is:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

write this after the number

th

st

nd

rd

th

th

th

th

th

th

For example: 2nd, 7th, 20th, 23rd, 52nd, 135th, 301st.

These ordinal abbreviations are actually hybrid contractions of a numeral and a word. 1st is "1" + "st" from "first". Similarly, we use "nd" for "second" and "rd" for "third". In some older publications, the ordinal abbreviation for "second" and "third" is simply, "d"

For example: 42d, 33d, 23d

Any ordinal name that doesn't end in "first", "second", or "third", ends in "th".

Here are some ordinal numbers.

0th

zeroth (see below)

1st

first

11th

eleventh

10th

tenth

2nd

second

12th

twelfth (note "f", not "v")

20th

twentieth

3rd

third

13th

thirteenth

30th

thirtieth

4th

fourth

14th

fourteenth

40th

fortieth

5th

fifth

15th

fifteenth

50th

fiftieth

6th

sixth

16th

sixteenth

60th

sixtieth

7th

seventh

17th

seventeenth

70th

seventieth

8th

eighth (only one "t")

18th

eighteenth

80th

eightieth

9th

ninth (no "e")

19th

nineteenth

90th

ninetieth

Zeroth only has a meaning when counts start with zero, which happens in a mathematical or computer science context.

Ordinal numbers such as 21st, 33rd, etc, are formed by combining a cardinal ten with an ordinal unit.

21st

twenty-first

25th

twenty-fifth

32nd

thirty-second

58th

fifty-eighth

64th

sixty-fourth

79th

seventy-ninth

83rd

eighty-third

99th

ninety-ninth

Higher ordinals are not usually written in words. They are written using digits and letters as described below. Here are some rules that should be borne in mind.

The suffixes -th, -st, -nd and -rd are usually written raised above the number itself (as superscript)

If the tens digit of a number is 1, then write "th" after the number. For example: 13th, 19th, 112th, 9311th.

If the tens digit is not equal to 1, then use the following table:

If the unit's digit is:

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

write this after the number

th

st

nd

rd

th

th

th

th

th

th

For example: 2nd, 7th, 20th, 23rd, 52nd, 135th, 301st.

These ordinal abbreviations are actually hybrid contractions of a numeral and a word. 1st is "1" + "st" from "first". Similarly, we use "nd" for "second" and "rd" for "third". In some older publications, the ordinal abbreviation for "second" and "third" is simply, "d"

For example: 42d, 33d, 23d

Any ordinal name that doesn't end in "first", "second", or "third", ends in "th".

**Dates**

Years before 2000 are read as follows:

1066

ten sixty-six

1492

fourteen ninety-two

1500

fifteen hundred

1502

fifteen oh two (note the "oh" for zero)or fifteen hundred and two

1776

seventeen seventy-six

1990

nineteen ninety

The year 2000 is read "two thousand".

Years after 2000 have no set system as of yet for expressing them; however, the second form of zeroth-decade year pronunciation is more common (that is, 2003 to be said as "two thousand (and) three"), and post-2010 dates are often said as normal (2010 would be "twenty ten").

Note that years are exceedingly rarely read as ordinal numbers, as "[...] in the one thousand one hundred and ninety-seventh year of our Lord" (that is, 1197), and this is considered archaic.

In British, European and International (covering most of the world) English, the day usually comes before the month and the ordinal suffix is always vocalised and often appended: "the 1st of October 1984". However, other usages are not exceptional; "October the First is too Late" is the name of a novel by the English astronomer Fred Hoyle. In writing, the and especially of, while vocalised, are generally left out from the written date, particularly when the date stands alone, such as when writing cheques: 1st October 1984. The full form was common in older English, as can be seen in old English literature. The three main written forms are therefore:

The 25th of January 2005 (old English extended form rarely used now in written form, but still fully used for all three forms in spoken English)

25th January 2005 (omitting "the" and "of")

25 January 2005 (omitting the ordinal suffix)

In North American English, the day usually comes after the month and the ordinal suffix is rarely written, but optionally vocalized: "September 4, 1990" (read "September four(th), nineteen ninety"). The British form is still used for certain dates such as the Fourth of July.

Compare:

Today is (the) 14th (of) March 2004. (British and international form, read "Today is the fourteenth of March, two thousand and four").

We signed the documents on June 10, 1969. (North American form, read "...on June ten(th), nineteen sixty-nine").

The comma before the year is optional. It is usually used in American English (September 4, 2004) but seldom used in British and International English (4 September 2004). In abbreviations of month names, such as "Aug" for August, the period or full stop is often left out.

For an explanation of British, American and International usage for dates written in numbers, such as 14/03/2004 or 3/14/2004 or 2004-03-14.

Years before 2000 are read as follows:

1066

ten sixty-six

1492

fourteen ninety-two

1500

fifteen hundred

1502

fifteen oh two (note the "oh" for zero)or fifteen hundred and two

1776

seventeen seventy-six

1990

nineteen ninety

The year 2000 is read "two thousand".

Years after 2000 have no set system as of yet for expressing them; however, the second form of zeroth-decade year pronunciation is more common (that is, 2003 to be said as "two thousand (and) three"), and post-2010 dates are often said as normal (2010 would be "twenty ten").

Note that years are exceedingly rarely read as ordinal numbers, as "[...] in the one thousand one hundred and ninety-seventh year of our Lord" (that is, 1197), and this is considered archaic.

In British, European and International (covering most of the world) English, the day usually comes before the month and the ordinal suffix is always vocalised and often appended: "the 1st of October 1984". However, other usages are not exceptional; "October the First is too Late" is the name of a novel by the English astronomer Fred Hoyle. In writing, the and especially of, while vocalised, are generally left out from the written date, particularly when the date stands alone, such as when writing cheques: 1st October 1984. The full form was common in older English, as can be seen in old English literature. The three main written forms are therefore:

The 25th of January 2005 (old English extended form rarely used now in written form, but still fully used for all three forms in spoken English)

25th January 2005 (omitting "the" and "of")

25 January 2005 (omitting the ordinal suffix)

In North American English, the day usually comes after the month and the ordinal suffix is rarely written, but optionally vocalized: "September 4, 1990" (read "September four(th), nineteen ninety"). The British form is still used for certain dates such as the Fourth of July.

Compare:

Today is (the) 14th (of) March 2004. (British and international form, read "Today is the fourteenth of March, two thousand and four").

We signed the documents on June 10, 1969. (North American form, read "...on June ten(th), nineteen sixty-nine").

The comma before the year is optional. It is usually used in American English (September 4, 2004) but seldom used in British and International English (4 September 2004). In abbreviations of month names, such as "Aug" for August, the period or full stop is often left out.

For an explanation of British, American and International usage for dates written in numbers, such as 14/03/2004 or 3/14/2004 or 2004-03-14.

**Fractions and decimals**

Here are some common fractions:

1/16

one-sixteenth

1/10 or 0.1

one-tenth

1/8

one-eighth

2/10 or 0.2

two-tenths

1/4

one-quarter or one-fourth

3/10 or 0.3

three-tenths

1/3

one-third

3/8

three-eighths

4/10 or 0.4

four-tenths

1/2

one half

6/10 or 0.6

six-tenths

5/8

five-eighths

2/3

two-thirds

7/10 or 0.7

seven-tenths

3/4

three-quarters or three-fourths

8/10 or 0.8

eight-tenths

7/8

seven-eighths

9/10 or 0.9

nine-tenths

15/16

fifteen-sixteenths

Alternatively, and for greater numbers, one may say for 1/2 "one over two", for 5/8 "five over eight", and so on.

Numbers with a decimal point may be read as a cardinal number, then "and", then another cardinal number followed by an indication of the significance of the second cardinal number, or as a cardinal number, followed by "point", and then by the digits of the fractional part. The indication of significance takes the form of the denominator of the fraction indicating division by the smallest power of ten larger than the second cardinal. This is modified when the first cardinal is zero, in which case neither the zero nor the "and" is pronounced.

For example:

0.002 is "two thousandths" or "point zero zero two"

3.1416 is "three and one thousand four hundred sixteen ten-thousandths" or "three point one four one six"

99.3 is "ninety-nine and three tenths" or "ninetynine point three".

In English the decimal point was originally printed in the center of the line (0·002), but with the advent of the typewriter it was placed at the bottom of the line, so that a single key could be used as a full stop/period and as a decimal point. In many non-English languages a full-stop/period at the bottom of the line is used as a thousands separator.

Fractions together with an integer are read as follows:

1 1/2 is "one and a half"

6 1/4 is read as "six and a quarter"

7 5/8 is "seven and five eighths"

A space is required between the whole number and the fraction, however, if a special fraction character is used like "½", then the space can be done without, e.g.

·

9 1/2

9½

Here are some common fractions:

1/16

one-sixteenth

1/10 or 0.1

one-tenth

1/8

one-eighth

2/10 or 0.2

two-tenths

1/4

one-quarter or one-fourth

3/10 or 0.3

three-tenths

1/3

one-third

3/8

three-eighths

4/10 or 0.4

four-tenths

1/2

one half

6/10 or 0.6

six-tenths

5/8

five-eighths

2/3

two-thirds

7/10 or 0.7

seven-tenths

3/4

three-quarters or three-fourths

8/10 or 0.8

eight-tenths

7/8

seven-eighths

9/10 or 0.9

nine-tenths

15/16

fifteen-sixteenths

Alternatively, and for greater numbers, one may say for 1/2 "one over two", for 5/8 "five over eight", and so on.

Numbers with a decimal point may be read as a cardinal number, then "and", then another cardinal number followed by an indication of the significance of the second cardinal number, or as a cardinal number, followed by "point", and then by the digits of the fractional part. The indication of significance takes the form of the denominator of the fraction indicating division by the smallest power of ten larger than the second cardinal. This is modified when the first cardinal is zero, in which case neither the zero nor the "and" is pronounced.

For example:

0.002 is "two thousandths" or "point zero zero two"

3.1416 is "three and one thousand four hundred sixteen ten-thousandths" or "three point one four one six"

99.3 is "ninety-nine and three tenths" or "ninetynine point three".

In English the decimal point was originally printed in the center of the line (0·002), but with the advent of the typewriter it was placed at the bottom of the line, so that a single key could be used as a full stop/period and as a decimal point. In many non-English languages a full-stop/period at the bottom of the line is used as a thousands separator.

Fractions together with an integer are read as follows:

1 1/2 is "one and a half"

6 1/4 is read as "six and a quarter"

7 5/8 is "seven and five eighths"

A space is required between the whole number and the fraction, however, if a special fraction character is used like "½", then the space can be done without, e.g.

·

9 1/2

9½

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